definition, techniques and genres of fine art (2023)

When the masters of the old world painted their paintings, they didn’t even have a thought about what style their work would be classified by art historians. But the authors of the new time, especially the creators who worked at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, were very worried about the classification of their works. Moreover, they themselves created new directions. Therefore, below we will consider the main styles into which all works should be divided:


Abstractionism (Latin abstractus - non-objectivity) is a style in art of the 20th century, in which, instead of depicting reality, a system of purely formal elements is used, such as a line, a plane, a color spot, an abstract configuration.


Avant-garde (French avant-garde - forward detachment) is a generalized name for the trends in world art that arose at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Pictures painted in the avant-garde style did not recognize social values ​​and reflected radical changes in generally accepted painting.


Academism (from the French academisme) is a direction and style in European painting of the 17th-19th centuries. Academism grew up following the external forms of classical art. The followers characterized this style as a reasoning on the form of the ancient ancient world and the Renaissance, biblical stories, mythological traditions.


Baroque (from Italian barocco, - pretentious) is a conditional generalizing name for works of art from different countries of the epoch of the 17th-18th centuries. This is one of the most ambiguous terms in the history and theory of artistic culture. The artistic style of the Baroque is characterized by dynamics, tension, contrast of forms and colors, affectation, expressiveness, heightened sensuality, the desire for the greatness of the images created, for the combination of reality and illusion, for the fusion of various genera, types and genres of art in grandiose monuments, city and palace and park ensembles.

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Hyperrealism (from Latin realis - material) is a direction and style associated initially with the work of European photo-realists of the 1970s, and then more broadly understood as trends in various types of contemporary art: painting, sculpture and cinematography of the late XX - beginning of the XXI century.


Genre style (from French genre) is an artistic depiction of scenes of everyday life as a reflection of the forms of life of the people and the reality surrounding them. Such an image may be realistic, imaginary, or romanticized by its creator. Examples of genre painting are images of market scenes, holidays, interiors and street scenes.


Impressionism (from French impressionnisme - impression) is one of the largest trends in art of the last third of the 19th - early 20th centuries, a style that originated in France and then spread throughout the world. Representatives of impressionism sought to develop methods and techniques that would allow them to most naturally and vividly capture the real world in its mobility and variability, to convey their fleeting impressions. The basis of the impressionist method, which can be described as the quintessence of painting, is the perception and depiction of the objects of the reality surrounding the impressionist not autonomously, but in relation to the surrounding spatial and light-air environment: reflexes, glare, warm-cold relations of light and shadow; if wider, then capture space and time itself. This is both the strengths and weaknesses of the impressionistic style.


Cubism (from the French cubisme) is a modernist movement that originated in France at the beginning of the 20th century. The Cubist style is based on the desire to decompose the depicted three-dimensional object into simple elements and assemble it on canvas in a two-dimensional image. Thus, the artist manages to depict the object from different sides at the same time and emphasize the properties that are invisible in the classical depiction of the object from one side.


Minimalism in fine art originated in New York City as both new and older artists moved towards geometric abstraction. In painting, these were Frank Stella, Kenneth Noland, Al-Helda, Ellsworth Kelly, Robert Ryman and many others. The style of minimal art is characterized by geometric shapes cleared of any symbolism and metaphor, repetition, monochrome, neutral surfaces, industrial materials and manufacturing methods. Minimalism seeks to convey a simplified essence and form of objects, cutting off secondary images and shells. The symbolism of color, spots and lines prevails.

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Modern (from French modern - new) is an artistic style in art that arose at the end of the 19th century and reigned until the outbreak of the First World War. Its characteristic features are decorativeness, smoothness of lines and roundness of forms, their flexibility and fluidity. Also in Art Nouveau you will find an abundance of ornaments and decorations, attention to plant and natural motifs, and the figures will be flat, as on posters and stained-glass windows.


In the visual arts, Orientalism is associated with an appeal to historical events, literary plots, the life and life of the peoples of the Near and Middle East, as well as using certain stylistic techniques of oriental creativity. Biblical scenes are depicted in oriental scenery with a reliable transfer of costumes, landscapes, ethnic types (engravings by Gustave Doré, paintings by Gustave Moreau, V. D. Polenov and others). Of particular interest were such phenomena of Eastern life as baths and harems, where imaginary ethnography became a pretext for the manifestation of eroticism, as well as markets, images of Bedouins and Janissaries, motifs unusual for the European eye.

Pop Art

Pop Art (from the English popular art - popular) is a style in the fine arts of Western Europe and the United States of the late 1950s and 1960s, which arose as a negative reaction to abstract expressionism. As the main subject and image, pop art used images of consumer products. In fact, this direction has replaced the traditional fine art - with the demonstration of various objects of mass culture or the material world.


Pre-Raphaelitism is a style in English painting in the second half of the 19th century, formed in the early 50s in order to fight against the conventions of the Victorian era, academic traditions and blind imitation of classical models. The name "Pre-Raphaelites" (eng. Pre-Raphaelites) was supposed to denote spiritual kinship with the Florentine artists of the early Renaissance, that is, "before Raphael" and Michelangelo: Perugino, Fra Angelico, Giovanni Bellini. The most prominent members of the Pre-Raphaelite movement were Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Madox Brown, Edward Burne-Jones, William Morris, Arthur Hughes, Walter Crane, John William Waterhouse.


Primitivism is a style that originated in the 19th century, containing a deliberate simplification of the picture, making its forms primitive, like the work of a child or drawings of primitive times. According to some art historians, the concept of naive art does not fall under the definition of "primitivism", since the first means the painting of non-professionals, the second - the stylized painting of professionals. The most famous representatives of primitivism: Henri Rousseau, Niko Pirosmani, Ekaterina Medvedeva

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The style of realistic painting of the 19th century spread to almost all genres: portraits, landscapes, still lifes. Favorite themes of realists: paintings with genre scenes of rural and urban life of the working class, peasants, scenes of street life, cafes and nightclubs. Realists sought to convey a moment of life in dynamics, emphasizing as clearly, realistically and believably as possible the features of the appearance of the characters, their experiences and feelings.


The Renaissance (from the French Renaissance - to be reborn) is not even a style, but one of the greatest cultural and historical eras, a turning point in the history of Europe between the Middle Ages and the New Age, which laid the foundations of a new European culture. Otherwise, it is customary to call it "Renaissance", the hallmark of which is the secular nature of culture, its humanism and anthropocentrism, and the increased interest in antiquity. Of particular importance in the formation of the Renaissance was the fall of the Byzantine state, and the Byzantines who fled to Europe, taking with them their libraries and works of art, containing many ancient sources unknown to medieval Europe, and also being carriers of ancient culture, never forgotten in Byzantium. So, impressed by the speech of the Byzantine lecturer, Cosimo de' Medici founded Plato's Academy in Florence.


Romanticism is an ideological and artistic trend that emerged in European and American culture of the late 18th century - the first half of the 19th century, as a reaction to the aesthetics of classicism. Initially, the style developed (1790s) in philosophy and poetry in Germany, and later (1820s) spread to England, France and other countries. He predetermined the latest development of art, even those of his directions that opposed him. Freedom of self-expression, increased attention to the individual, unique features of a person, naturalness, sincerity and looseness, which replaced the imitation of classical examples of the 18th century, became new criteria in art. The Romantics rejected the rationalism and practicality of the Enlightenment as mechanistic, impersonal, and artificial. Instead, they prioritized the emotionality of expression, inspiration.


Rococo style is an image of gallant scenes from the life of the aristocracy. There is no place for cruel realities, religious motifs with saints, or the glorification of strength and heroism. Art historians call Rococo the most frivolous and even vulgar of all styles that have ever existed. A characteristic element of the style, which gave it its name, is rocaille - a sea shell. This is a peculiar form of a curl resembling a sea shell. Rococo brought into fashion various trinkets, which were also decorated with patterns and ornaments characteristic of this style. The attraction to light colors is noticeable both in painting and in decorating walls, knick-knacks, upholstery of fabrics on furniture. The "rocky" style is characterized by pastel, light shades, white, golden blue lilac colors.


Symbolism (French symbolisme - a sign, a sign) - a trend in the visual arts, originated in the painting of France in the 1870s-1880s, but became most widespread in the Art Nouveau period at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. The isolation of symbolism as a trend and style is associated with the strengthening of the romantic worldview in crisis, critical eras in the development of culture. The characteristic qualities of symbolist works of art are mysticism, mysterious mythological and sacred themes and plots, allusions, allegories, vague, disturbing and vague moods, esoteric symbolism. In the field of form there is a tense rhythm, deformation, foggy and gloomy coloring. The term "symbolism" in art was introduced by the French poet Jean Moréas in the manifesto "Le Symbolisme", published on September 18, 1886 in the Parisian newspaper Le Figaro.

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Social Realism

Socialist realism (Sotsrealism) is a direction of fine art depicting the ideals, as well as the exploits of a socialist society. The style of artistic socialist realism was widespread in the USSR and other socialist countries. Nowadays, socialist realist canvases are becoming popular as "artistic and historical curiosity" among collectors living in Western countries. In addition to fine arts, the term "socialist realism" also applies to Soviet literature.


In the 1910s, Kazimir Malevich founded Suprematism in painting - a subspecies of abstractionism, based on the manner of geometrism and the clarity of displaying figures and objects. Artists conveyed reality with the help of geometric shapes in bright colors. The style was based on triangles, circles, squares, straight lines, which were combined in various combinations.


A distinctive feature of the surrealist style is the use of paradoxical combinations of forms and illusions. It skillfully combines dream and reality, real and fictional. Surrealists were inspired by the idea of ​​a revolution of their own consciousness. And art acted, in their opinion, as a tool for this. A mixture of philosophical teachings is a characteristic feature of the theory of surrealism.


Figurativism is one of the styles of figurative art, where the main object of the image is the figures of people or animals. Objects for creativity can be a variety of animate and inanimate objects: people, houses, animals, cars, plants. But to implement his ideas, the author has the right to use all available means: a wide color palette, bizarre and original shapes of objects and their proportions, a combination of contrasts, the role of light and shadow, perspective and volume.


Fauvism (from French Fauvisme - wild) is a trend in French painting of the late 19th (rudiments) - early 20th century (official beginning) was assigned to a group of artists whose canvases were presented at the autumn salon of 1906. Unusual paintings left the viewer with a feeling of energy, vivid emotions of love and passion, and the French critic Louis Vaucelles called these painters wild animals (fr. les fauves). This was the reaction of contemporaries to the exaltation of color that struck them, the “wild” expressiveness of colors. So a random statement was fixed as the name of the whole trend. The artists themselves never recognized this epithet over themselves. The distinctive features of the Fauvist style include the dynamism of the brushstroke, spontaneity, and the desire for emotional strength. The power of artistic expression was created by bright coloring, purity and sharpness, contrast of colors, intensely open local colors, juxtaposition of contrasting chromatic planes. Complements the image of the sharpness of the rhythm. Fauvism is characterized by a sharp generalization of space, volume and the entire pattern, the reduction of form to simple outlines while refusing black and white modeling and linear perspective.

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Expressionism (from Latin expressio, "expression") is a style and one of the currents of avant-garde art. Expressionism appeared in Europe during modernism and replaced impressionism. Received the greatest development at the beginning of the 20th century. From impressionism, expressionism is distinguished by bright expressiveness, eccentricity, exaggerated emotionality. In their paintings, expressionists try to express not so much external qualities as internal experiences through external images. Expressionists of the early 20th century paid special attention to such emotional experiences as fear, pain, despair, anxiety.


What are the 7 techniques in art? ›

There are seven elements of art that are considered the building blocks of art as a whole. The seven elements are line, color, value, shape, form, space, and texture.

What do you mean by techniques in art? ›

Definition of technique

the manner and ability with which an artist, writer, dancer, athlete, or the like employs the technical skills of a particular art or field of endeavor. the body of specialized procedures and methods used in any specific field, especially in an area of applied science.

What are the genres of art? ›

The term genre has two meanings: On the one hand, it means the type or category of a painting; on the other hand, it denotes the content or topic of a particular picture. It all goes back to the 17th century.

What is fine art and its types? ›

Historically, the five main fine arts were painting, sculpture, architecture, music, and poetry, with performing arts including theatre and dance. In practice, outside education, the concept is typically only applied to the visual arts.

How many art techniques are there? ›

There are more than 75 types of painting styles in art today since the beginning of art history.

Why is technique important in art? ›

It helps us artists to have a cohesive body of work. That doesn't mean though that your technique must stay the same your whole life. As we age, we grow, we change, so why shouldn't our work as well.

What is the full meaning of techniques? ›

A technique is a particular method of doing an activity, usually a method that involves practical skills. ... tests performed using a new technique. Synonyms: method, way, system, approach More Synonyms of technique. 2.

What is technique and examples? ›

A technique is a method of doing some task or performing something. Your technique for opening drinks might be to twist the top off with your teeth. If so, your dentist better have a good tooth-repair technique. The noun technique can also refer to someone's skillfulness with the fundamentals of a particular task.

What are the two techniques of definition? ›

We introduce two kinds of definition: definition relative to an approximate theory and second order structural definition and apply them to defining mental qualities.

What are the 6 genres of art? ›

These different types of art are painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, music, cinema, and theater.

What are the three genres of art? ›

The three fine arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture are sometimes also called the “major arts”, with “minor arts” referring to commercial or decorative art styles. Architecture is the only form of fine visual art with a sense of utility or elements of practicality.

What are the four primary genres in art? ›

The established painting genres are: Landscape, Portraiture, Genre-Scenes, History, and Still Life. Over the centuries, debate has raged over the relative value and importance of these painting categories, and whether there is a natural hierarchy among them.

What are the 5 main fine arts? ›

Traditionally there were five main types of fine art. These fine arts were paintings, architecture, sculptures, music, and poetry. However, the new list of fine arts has expanded to include additional forms, and there are now seven established forms of fine art.

What are the characteristics of fine art? ›

Fine art is defined as those art forms whose primary characteristic is beauty rather than practical use, for example, painting, sculpture, drawing, prints, artistic photographs. Fine art collectively is expressed by the heading Art.

What defines art as fine art? ›

The term "fine art" refers to an art form practised mainly for its aesthetic value and its beauty ("art for art's sake") rather than its functional value. Fine art is rooted in drawing and design-based works such as painting, printmaking, and sculpture.

How many genres of art are there? ›

What are Genres? Paintings are traditionally divided into five categories or 'genres'.

What are the three art techniques? ›

Exploring Different Art Techniques - Drawing, Painting, Sculpture.

What is modern art techniques? ›

Although many different styles are encompassed by the term, there are certain underlying principles that define modernist art: A rejection of history and conservative values (such as realistic depiction of subjects); innovation and experimentation with form (the shapes, colours and lines that make up the work) with a ...

Why technique is so important? ›

Proper technique prevents injuries

This is the single most important reason to do everything you can to maintain proper form while lifting. As you lift heavy loads, there's a chance your body will come out of alignment, which will put your muscles, joints and tendons in positions that could result in tears and strains.

What is the importance of techniques? ›

Techniques are necessary and important; in fact, nothing could be evolved in any field without knowledge of how to do things. Both techniques and principles are necessary, but principles are more fundamental. Principles not only govern the operation of technique but also make possible its extension and perfection.

What are materials and techniques in art? ›

Art materials and methods are anything an artist uses to create art in any combination. Materials and methods also can be defined as the process of manufacturing or fabrication of a piece of art such as bronze that need to be melted and poured into a mold to be a finished piece of art.

What are the types of techniques? ›

The Two Types of Technique
  • Daily Techniques. Most players have aspects of their playing that require work every single day. ...
  • Habitual Techniques. Most players also have other techniques that will improve with practice, but they don't collapse as quickly or dramatically if ignored for a day or week. ...
  • Practice Everything.
29 Jan 2020

What are the three 3 techniques of definitions? ›

This lesson will introduce you to the three different types of definitions: formal, informal, and extended. Formal Definitions. A formal definition.

What is another word for techniques? ›

On this page you'll find 72 synonyms, antonyms, and words related to technique, such as: approach, art, capability, capacity, craft, and facility.

What is the difference between technique and technique? ›

Technique is the standard spelling. Technic is a variant, for example used for trade names such as by Lego and Panasonic and may sometimes be pronounced with a shorter unstressed i.

What technique is a short sentence? ›

Parataxis (from Greek: παράταξις, "act of placing side by side"; from παρα, para "beside" + τάξις, táxis "arrangement") is a literary technique, in writing or speaking, that favors short, simple sentences, without conjunctions or with the use of coordinating, but not with subordinating conjunctions.

What are the types of definition? ›

Definitions can be classified into two large categories: intensional definitions (which try to give the sense of a term), and extensional definitions (which try to list the objects that a term describes).

What are the three main parts of definition? ›

A formal definition consists of three parts: The term (word or phrase) to be defined. The class of object or concept to which the term belongs. The differentiating characteristics that distinguish it from all others of its class.

What are the four methods of definition? ›

Here are just four among the many types of definitions: (1) Definition by synonym; (2) Ostensive definitions; (3) Stipulative definitions, and. (4) Analytical definitions.

What are the 5 art genres? ›

In the seventeenth century five types – or 'genres' – of painting were established, these were: history painting; portrait painting; landscape painting; genre painting (scenes of everyday life) and still life.

What are the 3 definition of art? ›

The definition of art has generally fallen into three categories: representation, expression, and form. Art as Representation or Mimesis. Plato first developed the idea of art as “mimesis,” which, in Greek, means copying or imitation.

What are the 4 main parts of genre? ›

Genre consists of four elements or parts: character, story, plot and setting. An equation for remembering the genre is: Story (Action) + Plot + Character + Setting = Genre. This becomes an easy way to remember the elements of a genre.

What are the six fine arts? ›

He suggested six fine art, which are painting, sculpture, architecture, music, dance, literature. The development of fine art occurred in the 20th century, with the publication of Ricciotto Canudo entitled The Manifesto of the Seven Arts.

Who is the father of fine arts? ›

Considered the “Father of modern art”, Post-Impressionist Paul Cezanne's fresh, lively canvases broke with artistic tradition and led the way for the 20th century avant-garde.

What are the materials of fine art? ›

Art tools and materials for drawing and painting
  • Graphite pencils.
  • Brushes.
  • Paint.
  • Kneaded eraser.
  • Painting or drawing paper pads.
  • Painting knife or a palette knife.
  • Painting palette.
  • Masking tape.

What is another name of fine art? ›

What is another word for fine arts?
arts and craftsarts of design
beaux artsgraphic arts
pure artvisual arts

What are the 7 most common art styles discussed? ›

Know Your Art Painting Styles: 7 Most Popular
  • Realism art.
  • Photorealism Art.
  • Painterly Art Style.
  • Impressionism Painting.
  • Abstract Art.
  • Surrealism art.
  • Pop Art.
20 Aug 2015

What are the 7 elements of art used for? ›

Remember ​line, shape, form, space, texture, value and color. Knowing these elements will allow you to analyze, appreciate, write and chat about art, as well as being of help should you create art yourself.

What are the 6 main drawing techniques? ›

Exploring Mark-Making and Shading Techniques
  • ​1. Hatching.
  • Cross-Hatching.
  • Contour Lines.
  • Weaving.
  • Stippling.
  • Scribbling.
4 Jul 2018

What are the 5 drawing techniques? ›

The 5 basic skills of drawing are understanding edges, spaces, light and shadow, relationships, and, the whole, or gestalt. These 5 basic skills of drawing make up the components of a finished work of art when put together. These are the 5 basic drawing skills every artist needs to know.

What are the 8 forms of art? ›

These different types of art are painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, music, cinema, and theater.

What are the 5 Rules of arts? ›

The traditional way of looking at art, namely the visual arts, suggests that there are five basic elements of an artwork – line, shape, color, texture and space.

What is called 7th art? ›

the seventh art

(film) The making of motion pictures; filmmaking.

What are the 4 most important elements in art? ›

The Elements of Art that we have discussed are all important in what makes a work of art interesting. Line, Color, Shape, and Texture can be used individually, or combined together to create more impact.

What are the 3 main elements of art? ›

Components of Art. Subject, form, and content have always been the three basic components of a work of art, and they are wed in a way that is inseparable.

What are the 4 forms of art? ›

Some view literature, painting, sculpture, and music as the main four arts, of which the others are derivative; drama is literature with acting, dance is music expressed through motion, and song is music with literature and voice.

What are the 4 basic drawing techniques? ›

Drawing Techniques for Beginners
  • Back and forth: When we say basic, this what we're talking about. ...
  • Hatching: Hatching involves making tiny ticks on your page. ...
  • Cross Hatching: This technique is the logical extension to hatching. ...
  • Scribble: Scribbling allows your hand the opportunity to fly across the page.
12 Apr 2018

Which 3 are examples of drawing techniques? ›

Sketching approaches
  • Hatching and cross hatching. Hatching is one of the most basic drawing techniques. ...
  • Tonal sketching. Unlike hatching and cross hatching, the tonal approach has no visible lines. ...
  • Blending. ...
  • Accent lines. ...
  • Use your eraser to define form. ...
  • Keep your paper smudge free with another sheet of paper.
12 Mar 2017


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