How Diversity Makes Us Smarter (2022)

The first thing to acknowledge about diversity is that it can be difficult.

In the U.S., where the dialogue of inclusion is relatively advanced, even the mention of the word “diversity” can lead to anxiety and conflict. Supreme Court justices disagree on the virtues of diversity and the means for achieving it. Corporations spend billions of dollars to attract and manage diversity both internally and externally, yet they still face discrimination lawsuits, and the leadership ranks of the business world remain predominantly white and male.

How Diversity Makes Us Smarter (1)

It is reasonable to ask what good diversity does us. Diversity ofexpertise confers benefits that are obvious—you would not think of building a new car without engineers, designers, and quality-control experts—but what about social diversity? What good comes from diversity of race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation? Research has shown that social diversity in a group can cause discomfort, rougher interactions, a lack of trust, greater perceived interpersonal conflict, lower communication, less cohesion, more concern about disrespect, and other problems. So, what is the upside?

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How Diversity Makes Us Smarter (2)

The fact is that if you want to build teams or organizations capable of innovating, you need diversity. Diversity enhances creativity. It encourages the search for novel information and perspectives, leading to better decision making and problem solving. Diversity can improve the bottom line of companies and lead to unfettered discoveries and breakthrough innovations. Even simply being exposed to diversity can change the way you think.

This is not just wishful thinking: It is the conclusion I draw from decades of research from organizational scientists, psychologists, sociologists, economists, and demographers.

Informational diversity fuels innovation

The key to understanding the positive influence of diversity is the concept of informational diversity. When people are brought together to solve problems in groups, they bring different information, opinions, and perspectives.

(Video) How Diversity Makes Us Smarter, With Surprising Data Why That's So

This makes obvious sense when we talk about diversity of disciplinary backgrounds—think again of the interdisciplinary team building a car. The same logic applies to social diversity. People who are different from one another in race, gender, and other dimensions bring unique information and experiences to bear on the task at hand. A male and a female engineer might have perspectives as different from one another as an engineer and a physicist—and that is a good thing.

“We need diversity if we are to change, grow, and innovate”

―Dr. Katherine W. Phillips

Research on large, innovative organizations has shown repeatedly that this is the case.

For example, business professors Cristian Deszö of the University of Maryland and David Ross of Columbia University studied the effect of gender diversity on the top firms in Standard & Poor’s Composite 1500 list, a group designed to reflect the overall U.S. equity market. First, they examined the size and gender composition of firms’ top management teams from 1992 through 2006. Then they looked at the financial performance of the firms. In their words, they found that, on average, “female representation in top management leads to an increase of $42 million in firm value.” They also measured the firms’ “innovation intensity” through the ratio of research and development expenses to assets. They found that companies that prioritized innovation saw greater financial gains when women were part of the top leadership ranks.

Racial diversity can deliver the same kinds of benefits. In a study conducted in 2003, Orlando Richard, a professor of management at the University of Texas at Dallas, and his colleagues surveyed executives at 177 national banks in the U.S., then put together a database comparing financial performance, racial diversity, and the emphasis the bank presidents put on innovation. For innovation-focused banks, increases in racial diversity were clearly related to enhanced financial performance.

Of course, not all studies get the same results. Even those that haven’t found benefits for racially diverse firms suggest that there is certainly no negative financial impact—and there are benefits that may go beyond the short-term bottom line. For example, in a paper published in June of this year, researchers examined the financial performance of firms listed inDiversityInc’slist of Top 50 Companies for Diversity. They found the companies on the list did outperform the S&P 500 index—but the positive impact disappeared when researchers accounted for the size of the firms.That doesn’t mean diversity isn’t worth pursuing, conclude the authors:

In an age of increasing globalization, a diverse workforce may provide both tangible and intangible benefits to firms over the long run, including increased adaptability in a changing market. Also, as the United States moves towards the point in which no ethnic majority exists, around 2050, companies’ upper management and lower-level workforce should naturally be expected to reflect more diversity. Consequently, diversity initiatives would likely generate positive reputation effects for firms.

Evidence for the benefits of diversity can be found well beyond the U.S. In August 2012, a team of researchers at the Credit Suisse Research Institute issued a report in which they examined 2,360 companies globally from 2005 to 2011, looking for a relationship between gender diversity on corporate management boards and financial performance. Sure enough, the researchers found that companies with one or more women on the board delivered higher average returns on equity, lower gearing (that is, net debt to equity), and better average growth.

(Video) Emile Servan-Schreiber: Collective intelligence - How Diversity makes us smarter

How diversity provokes new thinking

  • More on Diversity

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Large data-set studies have an obvious limitation: They only show that diversity is correlated with better performance, not that it causes better performance. Research on racial diversity in small groups, however, makes it possible to draw some causal conclusions. Again, the findings are clear: For groups that value innovation and new ideas, diversity helps.

In 2006, I set out with Margaret Neale of Stanford University and Gregory Northcraft of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to examine the impact of racial diversity on small decision-making groups in an experiment where sharing information was a requirement for success.

Our subjects were undergraduate students taking business courses at the University of Illinois. We put together three-person groups—some consisting of all white members, others with two whites and one nonwhite member—and had them perform a murder mystery exercise. We made sure that all group members shared a common set of information, but we also gave each member important clues that only he or she knew. To find out who committed the murder, the group members would have to share all the information they collectively possessed during discussion. The groups with racial diversity significantly outperformed the groups with no racial diversity. Being with similar others leads us to think we all hold the same information and share the same perspective. This perspective, which stopped the all-white groups from effectively processing the information, is what hinders creativity and innovation.

Other researchers have found similar results. In 2004, Anthony Lising Antonio, a professor at the Stanford Graduate School of Education, collaborated with five colleagues from the University of California, Los Angeles, and other institutions to examine the influence of racial and opinion composition in small group discussions. More than 350 students from three universities participated in the study. Group members were asked to discuss a prevailing social issue (either child labor practices or the death penalty) for 15 minutes. The researchers wrote dissenting opinions and had both black and white members deliver them to their groups. When a black person presented a dissenting perspective to a group of whites, the perspective was perceived as more novel and led to broader thinking and consideration of alternatives than when a white person introducedthat same dissenting perspective.

The lesson: When we hear dissent from someone who is different from us, it provokes more thought than when it comes from someone who looks like us. It’s a result echoed by a longitudinal study published last year, which tracked the moral development of students on 17 campuses who took a class on diversity in their freshman year. The analysis led the researchers to a robust conclusion: Students who were trained to negotiate diversity from the beginning showed much more sophisticated moral reasoning by the time they graduated. This was especially true for students who entered with lower academic ability.

(Video) Diversity Makes Us Smarter

This effect is not limited to race and gender. For example, last year professors of management Denise Lewin Loyd of the University of Illinois, Cynthia Wang of Oklahoma State University, Robert B. Lount, Jr., of Ohio State University, and I asked 186 people whether they identified as a Democrat or a Republican, then had them read a murder mystery and decide who they thought committed the crime. Next, we asked the subjects to prepare for a meeting with another group member by writing an essay communicating their perspective. More important, in all cases, we told the participants that their partner disagreed with their opinion but that they would need to come to an agreement with the other person. Everyone was told to prepare to convince their meeting partner to come around to their side; half of the subjects, however, were told to prepare to make their case to a member of the opposing political party, and half were told to make their case to a member of their own party.

The result: Democrats who were told that a fellow Democrat disagreed with them prepared less well for the discussion than Democrats who were told that a Republican disagreed with them. Republicans showed the same pattern. When disagreement comes from a socially different person, we are prompted to work harder. Diversity jolts us into cognitive action in ways that homogeneity simply does not.

For this reason, diversity appears to lead to higher-quality scientific research.

In 2014, two Harvard University researchers examined the ethnic identity of the authors of 1.5 million scientific papers written between 1985 and 2008 using Thomson Reuters’s Web of Science, a comprehensive database of published research. They found that papers written by diverse groups receive more citations and have higher impact factors than papers written by people from the same ethnic group. Moreover, they found that stronger papers were associated with a greater number of author addresses; geographical diversity, and a larger number of references, is a reflection of more intellectual diversity.

What we believe makes a difference

How Diversity Makes Us Smarter (4)

(Video) Elocution on Topic ::: DIVERSITY MAKES US SMARTER

Diversity is not only about bringing different perspectives to the table. Simply adding social diversity to a group makes peoplebelievethat differences of perspective might exist among them and that belief makes people change their behavior.

Members of a homogeneous group rest somewhat assured that they will agree with one another; that they will understand one another’s perspectives and beliefs; that they will be able to easily come to a consensus.

But when members of a group notice that they are socially different from one another, they change their expectations. They anticipate differences of opinion and perspective. They assume they will need to work harder to come to a consensus. This logic helps to explain both the upside and the downside of social diversity: People work harder in diverse environments both cognitively and socially. They might not like it, but the hard work can lead to better outcomes.

In a 2006 study of jury decision making, social psychologist Samuel Sommers of Tufts University found that racially diverse groups exchanged a wider range of information during deliberation about a sexual assault case than all-white groups did. In collaboration with judges and jury administrators in a Michigan courtroom, Sommers conducted mock jury trials with a group of real selected jurors. Although the participants knew the mock jury was a court-sponsored experiment, they did not know that the true purpose of the research was to study the impact of racial diversity on jury decision making.

Sommers composed the six-person juries with either all white jurors or four white and two black jurors. As you might expect, the diverse juries were better at considering case facts, made fewer errors recalling relevant information, and displayed a greater openness to discussing the role of race in the case.

These improvements did not necessarily happen because the black jurors brought new information to the group—they happened because white jurors changed their behavior in the presence of the black jurors. In the presence of diversity, they were more diligent and open-minded.

Consider the following scenario: You are a scientist writing up a section of a paper for presentation at an upcoming conference. You are anticipating some disagreement and potential difficulty communicating because your collaborator is American and you are Chinese. Because of one social distinction, you may focus on other differences between yourself and that person, such as her or his culture, upbringing and experiences—differences that you would not expect from another Chinese collaborator. How do you prepare for the meeting? In all likelihood, you will work harder on explaining your rationale and anticipating alternatives than you would have otherwise—and you might work harder to reconcile those differences.

This is how diversity works: by promoting hard work and creativity; by encouraging the consideration of alternatives even before any interpersonal interaction takes place. The pain associated with diversity can be thought of as the pain of exercise. You have to push yourself to grow your muscles. The pain, as the old saw goes, produces the gain. In just the same way, we need diversity—in teams, organizations, and society as a whole—if we are to change, grow, and innovate.

This essay was originally published in 2014 by Scientific American. It has been revised and updated to include new research.

(Video) Our Diversity Makes Us Stronger by Elizabeth Cole | Teaching Kids about Diversity and Kindness

FAQs

How does diversity makes us smarter? ›

Diversity enhances creativity. It encourages the search for novel information and perspectives, leading to better decision making and problem solving. Diversity can improve the bottom line of companies and lead to unfettered discoveries and breakthrough innovations.

Why does diversity make us better? ›

Diversity promotes critical thinking

In addition, Scientific American found that exposure to diversity changes the way people think and ultimately improves innovation, creativity, and problem-solving skills, which makes us smarter. In addition, Antonio et al.

Why diverse groups are smarter? ›

When people from diverse backgrounds get together, they focus more on facts and process those facts more carefully. They're more likely to constantly look at facts and remain objective, while at the same time encouraging greater attention to each member's actions.

How does diversity make society better? ›

Having diversity and inclusion will improve the balance of opinions, views in any setting. A well-balanced world will accept different opinions and reduce fears towards differences. A well-balanced world can also improve the average cultural competency in the society.

What is diversity and why is it important? ›

1) Diversity drives creativity and innovation

Every culture, every nationality, every single person sees the world in a different way. Similarly, every culture, nationality, and person has different knowledge, perspectives, and points of view. When all of these different views are shared together, miracles can happen.

Why is diversity important in education? ›

When working and learning with people from a variety of backgrounds and cultures present in the classroom, students gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject matter. It also teaches students how to use their own strengths and points of view to contribute in a diverse working environment.

How does diversity lead to innovation? ›

Diverse and inclusive teams create more unlikely ideas

—the more likely they are to draw inspiration from seemingly unrelated places. These idea combinations lead to more unlikely—and more innovative—ideas.

What diversity makes our lives? ›

One thing is unique about diversity is that it teaches us to live and adjust ourselves in broad society. Our Constitution believes in respect to all human beings in a similar way. Diversity makes us tolerant and just. We know how to behave with other people belonging to different caste, creed or culture.

Does diversity improve performance? ›

Healthcare studies showed patients generally fare better when care was provided by more diverse teams. Professional skills-focused studies generally find improvements to innovation, team communications and improved risk assessment. Financial performance also improved with increased diversity.

Do groups with diverse members make better decisions? ›

Here's why diversity on your team will make a difference: Diverse groups perform better and make more accurate decisions than non-diverse groups. Companies with more gender and ethnic diversity in top management teams have better performance and better financial returns.

What is the value of diversity? ›

It is important to value diversity because: people build a stronger sense of identity and wellbeing, and have better education and career outcomes when their diverse strengths, abilities, interests and perspectives are understood and supported.

Why is embracing diversity important? ›

1: Diversity Expands Innovation, Creativity and Productivity

Increasing diversity in the workplace enhances creativity and innovation. Teams that see the same thing in different ways are more likely to get a wider range of perspectives and an infusion of fresh ideas, improving the productivity of the workforce.

What diversity means to you? ›

Diversity means having a range of people with various racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and cultural backgrounds and various lifestyles, experience, and interests. Diversity to me is the ability for differences to coexist together, with some type of mutual understanding or acceptance present.

How does diversity improve performance? ›

For one, diversity increases productivity. A more productive workforce translates to higher profits. Secondly, diverse teams tend to be more creative and better at problem-solving. In the private sector, this can give you an edge over your competitors.

How does diversity increase creativity? ›

Forbes reports that diverse teams are more creative because a person's individual creativity is enhanced by their ability to integrate different points of view—something that many of us learn when interacting with people from different backgrounds.

How does diversity lead to innovation? ›

Diverse and inclusive teams create more unlikely ideas

—the more likely they are to draw inspiration from seemingly unrelated places. These idea combinations lead to more unlikely—and more innovative—ideas.

Why does diversity matter in the workplace? ›

Higher rates of workplace diversity can help companies evolve, innovate, problem-solve, and be more efficient. Moreover, highly diverse workplaces offer employees a better sense of community, increased worker engagement, and a more positive corporate culture.

Being around people who are different from us makes us more creative, more diligent and harder-working

Diversity of expertise confers benefits that are obvious—you would not think of building a new car without engineers, designers and quality-control experts—but what about social diversity?. When people are brought together to solve problems in groups, they bring different information, opinions and perspectives.. They found that companies that prioritized innovation saw greater financial gains when women were part of the top leadership ranks.. Large data-set studies have an obvious limitation: they can show only that diversity is correlated with better performance, not that it causes better performance.. Research on racial diversity in small groups, however, makes it possible to draw some causal conclusions.. In 2006 Margaret Neale of Stanford University, Gregory Northcraft of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and I set out to examine the impact of racial diversity on small decision-making groups in an experiment where sharing information was a requirement for success.. Being with similar others leads us to think we all hold the same information and share the same perspective.. When a Black person presented a dissenting perspective to a group of white people, the perspective was perceived as more novel and led to broader thinking and consideration of alternatives than when a white person introduced that same dissenting perspective .. Next, we asked the subjects to prepare for a meeting with another group member by writing an essay communicating their perspective.. Simply adding social diversity to a group makes people believe that differences of perspective might exist among them, and that belief makes people change their behavior.. But when members of a group notice that they are socially different from one another, they change their expectations.. This logic helps to explain both the upside and the downside of social diversity: people work harder in diverse environments both cognitively and socially.. This is how diversity works: by promoting hard work and creativity; by encouraging the consideration of alternatives even before any interpersonal interaction takes place.

Diversity in the classroom benefits students for life. Explore how American University’s online EdD program teaches cultural diversity in the classroom.

The National Education Association reports that 2014 was the first year in which the majority of students in American public schools represented racial and ethnic minorities.. Those considering enrolling in a Doctorate in Education (EdD) program should seek out one that emphasizes the importance of inclusion and diversity in the classroom, and the benefits they can provide.. Strong EdD programs teach educators to value the unique aspects of what makes each student different, and helps them embrace those differences in the classroom.. By presenting students with viewpoints far different from their own, it gives them the opportunity to think critically about their own beliefs and examine the world in fresh ways.. As part of the Century Foundation’s research study on diversity, the authors reviewed 27 different studies about the effects of diversity on people’s willingness to interact with and improve their local community—a concept known as civic engagement.. The study found that experiences with diversity in college do lead to increased civic engagement.. Classroom students aren’t the only ones who can benefit from learning about what makes them diverse.. According to the NDT Resource Center, an academic source committed to nondestructive evaluation, educators should also get to know their students and what makes them unique, thereby discovering the viewpoint from which they see the world and their personal learning style.. An educator who properly creates a culturally responsive environment will have fostered a classroom where students become respectful and understanding of cultures different from their own.. Learning about one’s own culture is just as important as learning about others when it comes to developing cultural understanding among students.. Educators with a strong teaching background such as an EdD can facilitate projects for their students that encourage them to get to know their own history.. Teachers who wish to be at the forefront of their profession should have a strong foundation in understanding diversity and how to create an environment of inclusion in the classroom.

Findings from tens of thousands of VC investments.

In Brief The Problem Researchers have struggled to establish a causal relationship between diversity and financial performance—particularly in large companies, where decision rights and incentives can be murky.. The Research The authors zeroed in on the venture capital industry, which presents fewer barriers to understanding: Every investor is a decision maker, and choices have clear business consequences.. The Findings The evidence is clear: Diversity significantly improves VCs’ financial performance on measures such as profitable investments at the individual portfolio-company level and overall fund returns.. On “harder” measures of financial performance, researchers have struggled to establish a causal relationship with diversity—particularly when studying large companies, where decision rights and incentives can be murky, and the effects of any given choice on, say, profits or market share can be nearly impossible to pin down.. Over the past several years one of us (Paul Gompers) has examined the decisions of thousands of venture capitalists and tens of thousands of investments, and the evidence is clear: Diversity significantly improves financial performance on measures such as profitable investments at the individual portfolio-company level and overall fund returns.. Interestingly, projects selected by both homogeneous and diverse sets of investment partners were equally promising at the time the decision to invest was made.. Of course, we aren’t suggesting that male VCs should have daughters to reduce gender bias and increase diversity in their firms.. Venture capital firms that increased their proportion of female partner hires by 10% saw, on average, a 1.5% spike in overall fund returns each year and had 9.7% more profitable exits (an impressive figure given that only 28.8% of all VC investments have a profitable exit).. Using a model that assumes innate skills are evenly distributed across gender and racial groups, the NBER analysis attributes about 25% of the GDP growth per capita to the uptick in white women and black Americans of both genders.. Given that homogeneity imposes financial costs and diversity produces financial gains, a natural next step is to assess what managers can do to increase representation across groups.. They discovered that over multiple “generations” of interaction, such as taking new classes or joining new activities, even minor individual tendencies to interact with similar people could have a large cumulative effect, resulting in striking levels of group homogeneity.. Combined with the fact that group homophily tends to compound over time, it also suggests that if the goal is proportional representation over the long term, it’s better to overcorrect for bias early on, by hiring more people from traditionally underrepresented groups, than it is to undercorrect.. When the New York Times Magazine reporter and 2017 MacArthur fellow Nikole Hannah-Jones was asked to offer advice to journalists of color in light of the troubling report, she instead issued a call to newsroom managers to examine whether “their stated goals are really their goals.” She added: “If newsroom managers wanted diverse newsrooms, they’d have diverse newsrooms.”. Though assigned mentorship and other professional programs can help decrease bias and increase diversity in organizations by exposing managers and employees to more people who are less like them, such relationships are by nature hierarchical and may actually aggravate individuals’ prejudices.. When people choose to ignore bias or deny that it exists, they keep seeking out business partners, team members, and employees who share their traits, and they miss out on the quantifiable benefits of diversity.

Gartner analyst Christie Struckman says to drive workplace #inclusion, executives must recognize and confront marginalizing behaviors. Read more here. #DEI

And it is an important part of the management role to create that environment, which is why I've put together five steps that managers can do when in the moment they see a marginalizing behavior.. Recognize the behaviors.. Often, once a manager starts paying attention to the behaviors, they'll realize that it has actually been happening all along, so it’s important to coach the employee privately to change the behavior.. There is a chance that the employee didn’t feel marginalized, but it’s better to have the conversation so they feel that the manager is looking out for them.. I'm a big proponent of what I call diversity and inclusion norms.. The value of norms is letting people know what is expected, by giving a language when we need to call somebody out on whether they're following that.. Or maybe the woman doesn't feel marginalized.

"A diverse mix of voices leads to better discussions, decisions, and outcomes for everyone.” ~Sundar Pichai

Businesses and specifically people management can play a significant role in this regard by focusing on the diversity and inclusion policies and strategies in the workplace.. It fosters a safe, secure, and inclusive workplace where people with diverse backgrounds can thrive.. Diversity is not how we differ.. Many conversations about diversity and inclusion do not happen in the boardroom because people are embarrassed at using unfamiliar words or afraid of saying the wrong thing — yet this is the very place we need to be talking about it.. Diversity is a fact, but inclusion is a choice we make every day.. Our commitment to integrity, our commitment to diversity and inclusion, to respecting our teammates - that's what makes this business work.. We will all profit from a more diverse, inclusive society, understanding, accommodating, even celebrating our differences, while pulling together for the common good.. The first step that you can take to make your workplace a better place is to start making people aware of the importance of diversity, inclusion, and equity.

Why should you care about diversity in your customer service team? You will benefit from improved service, innovation, creativity, and a lot more!

Best serving a diverse customer base Diverse perspectives lead to innovation and creativity Creating a culture of continuous engagement and learning Fostering an inclusive work environment Attracting more diverse talent Diverse teams solve problems faster Improving employee retention. The more diverse your customer service team is, the more likely they will be able to show empathy towards a diverse customer base, and take customer requests seriously.. Simply put, a diverse customer service team is better equipped to connect your customers to your brand.. A Boston Consulting Group study discovered that companies with more diverse management teams had 19 percentage points higher innovation revenues than companies with below-average diversity scores.. And to reap the benefits of an engaged customer service team, you need to build it up on diversity and inclusiveness.. Then, six teams were put to the problem-solving test: teams A, B & C all had the diversity of both knowledge processes and perspective, whereas teams D, E & F all had less diversity.. The benefits of creating a diverse working environment for your customer service team goes well beyond reaching diversity quotas.. Having figures to show your company is diverse is one thing, but fostering an environment of inclusion is where you will really start to see the rewards in your customer service team.. If you want to provide first-class service to your customers, make sure that your customer service department is as diverse as your customer base.

Let’s face it, today’s business world is set on a global stage. Technology is just one factor that’s making our world smaller and giving companies of all sizes the freedom to recruit the best people, wherever they are. And as technology takes great strides into the future, the people who access it are jogging along in tandem. Millennials are shaping the workplaces of today and the future. And the words on everyone’s lips is “cultural diversity.” It’s a trend that’s most definitely here to stay. But first, what exactly is cultural diversity?

But first, what exactly is cultural diversity?. Through helping you improve understanding of this topic within your organisation and develop a guide on how to promote cultural diversity in the workplace.. The term cultural diversity encourages an environment of inclusion, with representatives from a range of various backgrounds that come together to work as a team.. There’s been extensive research into its positive effects and the importance of business inclusivity .. By opening the conversation with employees and candidates on race and ethnicity, this goes a step towards improving cultural diversity.. The best way to learn about other cultures and ethnicities is by talking to someone with that background.

Videos

1. Diversity Makes You Smarter | Kathleen Nalty | TEDxCU
(TEDx Talks)
2. How diversity makes teams more innovative | Rocío Lorenzo
(TED)
3. Diversity and Inclusion Makes Us Stronger, Smarter, Creative, and Innovative
(U.S. Department of State)
4. Why Diverse Teams Are Smarter
(Columbia Business School)
5. Как различия делают нас умнее / How diversity makes us smarter
(Women in Tech)
6. Why Diversity Matters | Katherine Phillips | Talks@Columbia
(Talks at Columbia)

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