Perspectives Upper Int SB - PDFCOFFEE.COM (2022)

Inspiring Communication

Inspiring Communication TALKS

National Geographic Learning materials with TED Talks help learners develop effective and confident English communication skills.

Perspectives

upper Intermediate

upper Intermediate

Perspectives

Perspectives teaches learners to think critically and to develop the language skills they need to find their own voice in English. The carefully guided language lessons, real-world stories and TED Talks motivate learners to think creatively and communicate effectively. In Perspectives, learners develop an open mind, a critical eye and a clear voice in English.

• Every unit explores one idea from different perspectives, • Students learn the critical thinking skills and strategies

they need to evaluate new information and develop their own opinions and ideas.

• Students respond to the unit theme and express their students for a range of international exams.

Safwat Saleem Artist, graphic designer, filmmaker

NGL.Cengage.com/perspectives

A1

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

Perspectives Upper Intermediate is for students who have achieved B1 and want to achieve B2.

Bringing the world to the classroom and the classroom to life

NGL.Cengage.com/ELT A P AR T OF CE NGAGE

Dellar | Walkley

british English

Student’s Book

• Exam-style task types and test-taking strategies prepare

upper Intermediate

giving learners opportunities for practising language as they look at the world in new ways.

own ideas confidently in English.

Perspectives

Perspectives UPPER INTERMEDIATE

Hugh Dellar Andrew Walkley Lewis Lansford Daniel Barber Amanda Jeffries

Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

welcome to perspectives!

Perspectives teaches learners to think critically and to develop the language skills they need to find their own voice in English. The carefully guided language lessons, real-world stories and TED Talks motivate learners to think creatively and communicate effectively. In Perspectives, learners develop:

• AN OPEN MIND

Every unit explores one idea from different perspectives, giving learners opportunities for practising language as they look at the world in new ways.

2 

• A CRITICAL EYE

Students learn the critical thinking skills and strategies they need to evaluate new information and develop their own opinions and ideas to share.

• A CLEAR VOICE

Students respond to the unit theme and express their own ideas confidently in English.

  3

Contents UNIT

VOCABULARY

LISTENING

GRAMMAR

READING

Experiences abroad

A podcast about study-abroad programmes

Present and past forms

An article about a disappearing way of travelling for free

Vocabulary building  Phrasal verbs

Critical thinking Evaluating ideas

1 Travel, trust and tourism Pages 8–19

Setting up a new business Vocabulary building Adjective and noun collocations 1

A lecture about young entrepreneurs

Present perfect forms and past simple

An infographic about online crime

Four people talking about sportspeople they admire

Determiners

An article about the lengths countries will go to in order to host the Olympics and do well

Critical thinking interpreting data

2 The business of technology Pages 20–31

Describing sportspeople Vocabulary building Synonyms in texts

Critical thinking Supporting arguments

3 Faster, higher, stronger Pages 32–43

Cultural events Vocabulary building Adjective and noun collocations 2

A podcast about art projects

Future forms 1

An article about an innovative programme for teaching music Critical thinking Understanding and evaluating ideas

4 Cultural transformation Pages 44–55

Science in action Vocabulary building Adjective endings

5 It’s not rocket science Pages 56–67

4 

A radio programme about life hacks

The passive 1 Pronunciation Stress in the passive

An article about why humans are curious Critical thinking Asking critical questions

GRAMMAR

SPEAKING

WRITING

Advice / Making recommendations

A review

James Veitch

Persuading

James Veitch’s idea worth spreading is that spam email can lead us to some surprising, bizarre and often hilarious exchanges with others.

Pronunciation Intonation for persuasion

A persuasive article

Used to and would

Joe Gebbia

Pronunciation Elided ‘d

Joe Gebbia’s idea worth spreading is that we can design products, services and experiences that feel more local, authentic and that strengthen human connections.

How Airbnb designs for trust

Verb patterns (-ing or infinitive with to)

This is what happens when you reply to spam email

Comparatives and superlatives

Authentic listening skills Reporting

David Epstein’s idea worth spreading is that the amazing achievements of many modernday athletes are thanks to a complex set of factors, not just natural ability. Are athletes really getting faster, better, stronger?

Future forms 2

Reporting findings

A survey

Making suggestions

A for and against essay

Robert Hammond’s idea worth spreading is that we can work together to turn abandoned and neglected parts of our cities into vibrant community spaces. Building a park in the sky

The passive 2

Science is for everyone, kids included

Writing skill Describing statistics

Authentic listening skills  Slowing down and stressing words Robert hammond

Pronunciation Contrastive stress

Writing skill Getting people’s attention

Authentic listening skills  Intonation and pitch

David Epstein

Pronunciation Linking words together in fast speech

Writing skill Adding comments

Writing skill Introducing arguments

Authentic listening skills  Recognizing words you know Beau Lotto and Amy O’Toole Beau Lotto and Amy O’Toole’s idea worth spreading is that all of us can be scientists if we approach the world with the curiosity, interest, innocence and zeal of children. Authentic listening skills  Fillers

Staging and hypothesizing

A scientific method Writing skill Describing a process

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Contents UNIT

VOCABULARY

LISTENING

GRAMMAR

READING

Endangered species

An interview with a conservationist about extinction

Modal verbs and meaning

An online article about an endangered animal

Vocabulary building Compound nouns

Critical thinking Assessing information

6 Adapt to survive Pages 68–79

Breaking the mould Vocabulary building Noun forms

A podcast the importance of creativity

First, second, third and mixed conditionals

An article about tests of creativity

An interview with a girl about intercultural communication

Reported speech

An article about different sub-cultures around the world

A radio programme about crisis mapping

Relative clauses

Critical thinking Fact and opinion

7 Outside the box Pages 80–91

Identity and communication Vocabulary building Compound adjectives

Pronunciation Stress for clarification

Critical thinking Understanding other perspectives

8 Common ground Pages 92–103

Dealing with disaster Vocabulary building the + adjective

An article about how the United Nations gives a voice to young people Critical thinking Detecting bias

9 Lend a helping hand Pages 104–115

Illness and injury Vocabulary building Dependent prepositions

10 Life changing Pages 116–127

6 

A radio programme about inspiring films

Expressing past ability Pronunciation Stress on auxiliaries

An article about the fight against superbugs Critical thinking Thinking through the consequences

GRAMMAR Modal verbs and infinitive forms

Latif nasser

SPEAKING

WRITING

Telling anecdotes

A problemsolution essay

Latif Nasser’s idea worth spreading is that in science, and in life, we are making surprising discoveries that force us to reexamine our assumptions.

Pronunciation Weak forms of have and been

You have no idea where camels really come from

Wish, if only, would rather Pronunciation Elision of final consonants t and d

Go ahead, make up new words!

Patterns after reporting verbs

Authentic listening skills Understanding fast speech Erin Mckean Erin McKean’s idea worth spreading is that making up new words will help us use language to express what we mean and will create new ways for us to understand one another. Authentic listening skills Speeding up and slowing down speech

Offering solutions

A report

safwat saleem

Challenging ideas and assumptions

A complaint

Countering opposition

A letter of application

Safwat Saleem’s idea worth spreading is that we all benefit when we use our work and our voices to question and enlarge our understanding of what is ‘normal’. Why I keep speaking up, even when people mock my accent

Becci Manson

Pronunciation ing forms

Becci Manson’s idea worth spreading is that photographs hold our memories and our histories, connecting us to each other and to the past.

Writing skill Using appropriate tone

Writing skill Structuring an application

Authentic listening skills  Intonation and completing a point

Emphatic structures

Janine Shepherd

Pronunciation Adding emphasis

Janine Shepherd’s idea worth spreading is that we have inner strength and spirit that is much more powerful than the physical capabilities of even the greatest athletes. A broken body isn’t a broken person

Writing skill Cohesion

Authentic listening skills  Just

Participle clauses

(Re)touching lives through photos

Writing skill Topic sentences

Developing conversations

A success story Writing skill Using descriptive verbs

Authentic listening skills  Collaborative listening

Grammar reference and practice  128    Irregular verb list  148    Writing bank  149    Word lists  154

  7

1

Travel, trust and tourism

I N t h i s u ni t Y O U •  t alk about student exchanges and study-abroad programmes •  r ead about a disappearing way of travelling for free •  learn about the Grand Tours that were popular in the past •  w atch a TED Talk about how design can build trust between strangers •  w rite a review of a place you have visited

8 

1A  Cultural exchange Vocabulary  Experiences abroad 1

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • What do you normally do during the holidays? • Have you been abroad? If yes, where? If no, would you like to? Why? / Why not? • What do you know about student exchanges and study-abroad programmes?

  2

Check you understand the words and phrases in bold. Use a dictionary if necessary. Then tell your partner which experiences you think are good and which are bad. Give your reasons. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  3

Jemaa el-Fnaa is a square and a market place in Marrakesh, Morocco. Every evening, food stalls and entertainers attract local people and tourists to the main square of the city.

be left to your own devices find people very welcoming get a bit of a culture shock get a real feel for the place get food poisoning get off the beaten track get robbed

  8   9 10 11 12 13 14

go hiking in the mountains hang out with local people lie around a house all day see all the sights stay in a B&B stay with a host family take a while to get used to the food

Work in groups. Look at the words and phrases in Exercise 2. Discuss the questions. • Which are most / least connected to visitors to your country? • Which have you done? Or which have happened to you? When? • Which three do you most want to remember and use? Why?

 4

Work in pairs. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. • How is the market different from a market close to where you live? How would visiting this place make you feel? Why? • Which words and phrases in Exercise 2 can you use to describe what is happening? Make a list. Then explain your choices to a partner.

  5

Complete the description with words and phrases from Exercise 2. In the past, it was very common for teenagers to do student exchanges where they would go abroad and stay in each other’s homes. The idea was not only with the local teenagers, to learn a new language but to (1) the place and culture. even go to their school and get a (2) was very welcoming and students got on Sometimes the (3) was well with the people in the home, but other times the (4) the food and ended up too much because they couldn’t (5) . Maybe that’s why these days it is more being left to their (6) common for teenagers to go on a group trip abroad where everyone stays in a or hostel together. During the trip, students go and see (7) and only briefly meet up with a group from a local school. (8) a foreign house all day and This way teenagers don’t (9) there is no awkwardness. The worst that could happen might be a case of from a bad prawn and some sore feet from walking (10) around the town.

6

Work in pairs. Which of the two programmes described in Exercise 5 do you think is better? Why?

Unit 1  Travel, trust and tourism  9

Listening  7

 10 MY PERSPECTIVE

Work in pairs. Think of two more benefits and three possible issues students might face when doing a study-abroad programme. Then discuss the questions.

Listen to the first part of a podcast about study-abroad programmes. Find out:    1 1 who can do these programmes. 2 how long people can go abroad and study. 3 when the system started. 4 what the possible benefits are.

8

Listen to Kenji and Catalina. Answer the questions.    2 1 Where did they do their study-abroad programmes? 2 How long did they stay for? 3 Did the trip increase their understanding of other cultures and develop their language skills? If yes, how do you know?

 9

Work in pairs. Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F). Then listen again to check your answers.    2 1 Kenji had visited several countries before studying abroad in Munich. 2 He was really excited about studying abroad. 3 His host family helped him develop a better understanding of the German language. 4 He’s still in touch with his host family. 5 Catalina has family roots* in Italy. 6 She felt at home as soon as she arrived. 7 After a few weeks, she spoke enough Italian to do what she needed to do. 8 She’s glad she went to Italy but has no plans to go back. family roots original place where a family is from

Some study-abroad programmes allow students to visit countries like China where they can go to places like the Great Wall.

10  Unit 1  Travel, trust and tourism

• What do you think the biggest benefit is? Why? • What do you think the biggest issue is? Why?

GRAMMAR  Present and past forms  11

Look at the sentences in the Grammar box. Decide: 1 which two are about the present. 2 which four are about the past. 3 which two describe actions that happened before something else in the past. 4 which three use simple forms. 5 which three use continuous forms.

Present and past forms a b c d e f

I was actually thinking about cancelling my trip. I’d been wanting to go there for ages. We’re talking about study-abroad programmes. I’d never left Argentina! I spent six months in Germany last year. I miss my host family.

Check your answers on page 128. Do Exercises 1 and 2.

 12 Match the rules (1–6) with the examples (a–f) in the

Grammar box.

1 We use the present simple to talk about habits, permanent states and things that are generally true. 2 We use the present continuous to talk about actions we see as temporary, in progress and unfinished. 3 We use the past simple to describe finished actions in the past, especially when there is one finished action after another. 4 We use the past continuous to emphasize an action in progress around a time in the past. 5 We use the past perfect simple to emphasize that one thing happened before a particular point in the past. 6 We use the past perfect continuous to talk about an action that was in progress over a period of time up to or before a particular point in the past.  13 Complete the extract by putting each verb in brackets

into the best form.

I really (1) (love) travelling. It’s probably the most important thing in my life. I’m 17 now, (plan) to spend the summer and I (2) on a National Geographic Student Expedition! I actually (go) on my first adventure trip (3) a couple of years ago when I (4) (spend) two months in China. It was the first time I (ever / go) abroad, and I (5) (love) every minute of it! While (6) (stay) in Beijing, we we (7) (visit) the Great Wall of China (8) (dream) which was something I (9) of doing ever since I was a child. Just amazing! I (hope) to do an expedition (10) to Iceland next year and stay somewhere really off the beaten track.

 14 Complete the pairs of sentences by putting one of the

verbs in brackets into the correct simple form and the other into the correct continuous form.

(spend) the summers 1a We usually with my grandparents at their house on the coast. 1b This summer, though, my brother is in Costa Rica. He (stay) with a host family there. (go) hiking in the 2a This weekend I mountains with some friends. (leave) at six every 2b The coach morning, so we should be at the bus station 15 minutes before. (get) really bad food poisoning 3a I while I was in Scotland. I’ve no idea why! 3b Things got worse when somebody stole my suitcase (wait) in the queue to buy while I train tickets to Glasgow. 4a I spoke good French by the time I left Québec (hang out) with the because I locals for the last few months of the ski season. 4b It was a great trip, but scary, because I never (try) skiing before.  15 You are going to tell a story. Choose one of the

situations below. Then plan what you want to say about where you were and when – and what happened during your time there. Think about how to use all four past forms at least once.

a Something that happened while you were on holiday b A time you stayed with other people c A place you have visited  16 Work in pairs. Tell each other your stories.

Unit 1  Travel, trust and tourism  11

1B  Ask for a lift Vocabulary building  Phrasal verbs

 5

We often use phrasal verbs in conversation instead of more formal words. They are very common in English. The meaning of a verb often changes when it is used in a phrasal verb. 1

come down to queue up

pick up turn out

1 They offered to give me a lift to the airport and collected me from the hotel at eight o’clock. 2 The bus stopped working on the way there so we were five hours late. 3 It was the New Year holiday, so I had to wait in a line for hours to get a train ticket. 4 I think the changes are basically because of two things: wealth and technology. 5 A car stopped by the side of the road and the driver asked us for directions. 6 I was worried because I’d never been abroad before, but everything was great in the end. 2

lie around

look after

6

• • • • •   7

step out

where you are going. why you are hitchhiking. how you are feeling. what happens next. how the story ends.

Tell your stories to other people in your class. Vote on the best one. Explain why it is the best story.

Evaluating ideas and judging them against other perspectives helps to form a basis for developing your own point of view.

Work in pairs. Look at the photo on page 13 and discuss the questions. • What is happening? • Which of the phrasal verbs in Exercise 1 can you connect to the photo? Explain your choices.

8

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 Which is the most important reason the author gives for the decline in hitchhiking? Do you agree? How important are the other reasons? 2 What comparison does the author provide from the website Wand’rly? Do you think it is a fair comparison? Why? / Why not? 3 How is the example of hitchhiking in Virginia different from other kinds? Does this make it safer? Why? / Why not? 4 Why do you think the author says he got a different perspective to other tourists? Do you think that is true? Do you think his perspective was better? Why? / Why not?

Reading  4

Work in pairs. Imagine you are standing at the side of a road trying to hitchhike. Tell your story. Before you do, talk and make notes about:

Critical thinking  Evaluating ideas

Write sentences using these phrasal verbs. hang out

3

1 There used to be far more hitchhikers. 2 There was a high number of robberies involving hitchhikers. 3 It’s difficult to find a place to hitchhike these days. 4 More people drive compared to the past. 5 Air travel is safer than driving or hitchhiking. 6 We are wasting a lot of energy by driving alone. 7 People only hitchhike now if they are poor. 8 Hitchhiking brings benefits to communities and individuals.

Rewrite the italics using the correct forms of these phrasal verbs. break down pull up

Work in pairs. Which of these ideas does the author present? What evidence is given?

Read about hitchhiking and match these headings with the numbered paragraphs (1–6). a Fear b More wealth c New needs and opportunities d Legal restrictions e Low-cost flights f Greater access to cars  9

MY PERSPECTIVE Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Do you think more hitchhiking is a good idea? What other reasons could there be for doing it? • How could you make hitchhiking safer?

12  Unit 1  Travel, trust and tourism

Hitchbot, a hitchhiking robot, waits for a lift at the side of a road. Read more about Hitchbot on page 129.

Hitchhiking Where did all the hitchhikers go? 35

I was driving along the other day, and I passed a man sticking his thumb out. He was asking for a lift. When we had gone past, my daughter, who is 15, asked me, ‘What was that man doing?’ The question surprised me because hitchhiking used to be so common. I used to do it all the time when I was a student going home to visit friends, and I also spent one summer hitching around South America. Often when you went to some hitching spots, you’d have to queue up behind several others already waiting for a lift – it was so popular. So what happened? Why is it so rare now? The authors of Freakonomics, Stephen Dubner and Steve Levitt, have also asked this question in one of their regular podcasts and suggested it probably comes down to five main reasons. 3

5

10

15

(1)

20

25

Several horror films have shown psychotic drivers who kidnap and murder the hitchhiker they pick up (or vice versa), and this has been reinforced by certain stories in the media of people getting robbed and being left in the middle of nowhere. Unsurprisingly, this has caused trust to break down. Some people believe that the chances of these things happening are small. The website Wand’rly, for example, suggests people are far more likely to die by tripping and falling than hitchhiking.

(4)

40

30

(3) Alan Piskarsi, a transport expert, points to the fact that cars last longer so there are more of them available at

In the past, young people simply couldn’t afford to fly long distances and travelling by train wasn’t necessarily much quicker than travelling by car. However, now we have budget airlines, making air travel more accessible.

(5) Alongside that, people’s standard of living has increased and perhaps people opt for higher levels of comfort, privacy or reliability when they travel. 45

50

55

(6) The trouble is that privacy comes at a cost. Levitt and Dubner state that in the USA, 80 percent of passenger space in cars is unused, which makes them more costly to operate and creates unnecessary traffic and pollution. The solution could be more hitchhiking! They give the example of a city in Virginia, where commuters have organized a spot where they meet to hitch a lift so drivers with no passengers can use fast lanes on the freeway that are reserved for cars that contain more than one person.

Fresh fears

(2) There are more major roads now than there used to be, and hitching is either banned or drivers are not allowed to pull up.

a cheaper price and, what’s more, many more people have driving licences.

60

But what about general travel? I often argued with my parents about the dangers of hitching, and I would tell them about all the amazing experiences I’d had and the generous, interesting people I’d met. And I think it genuinely gave me a different perspective to other travellers and tourists. But now I look at my daughter and I wonder about her going on a trip. Would I want her to go hitchhiking?

Unit 1 Travel, trust and tourism

13

1C  The Grand Tour Andrew Skurka’s longest ‘Grand Tour’ was 7,775 miles.

Grammar  Used to and would 1

Look at the Grammar box. Match the structures (1–3) with the uses (a–c), based on the examples in bold. 1 past simple a 2 used to, would, past simple b 3 used to or past simple c

to describe a past state over a period of time to describe individual past events and situations to describe a habit or regular action in the past

Used to and would Hitchhiking used to be so common. I used to do it all the time when I was a student going home to visit friends, and I also spent one summer hitching around South America. Often when you went to some hitching spots, you’d have to queue up behind several others already waiting for a lift – it was so popular. I often argued with my parents about the dangers of hitching, and I would tell them about all the amazing experiences I’d had. Check your answers on page 128. Do Exercises 3–5.  2

Read about Grand Tours. Find out what they were and why people did them. Humans have always been travellers, moving out of Africa to all parts of the world in search of space, food and resources. But the idea of guided tourism for leisure and education (1) didn’t really start until the 17th century when the Grand Tour (2) began to be established. Young aristocrats* from different parts of the world (3) spent several months travelling around important sights in Europe after they had finished university. The Tour often (4) started in the Netherlands, where the tourists (5) hired a coach, servants and a tutor to show them the sights and teach them about what they saw. From the Netherlands, they went to Paris, where they (6) did a French language course before moving on to Switzerland and then crossing the Alps to Italy. After an extensive tour of Italy, they (7) went home directly, (8) travelled back to the Netherlands via Austria and Germany or (9) carried on south to Greece. The Grand Tour (10) played an important part in education and in spreading culture. The tourists would often bring back paintings and books which influenced artists in their own country. The Venezuelan Francisco de Miranda even (11) saw the beginnings of the French Revolution on his Grand Tour, which (12) led him to fight for independence for his country. aristocrat person belonging to a high class

3

Change the words in bold in Exercise 2 from the past simple to used to or would + verb, where possible.

4

MY PERSPECTIVE

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Do you think anyone does Grand Tours today? How are they similar / different to the Grand Tours you read about in Exercise 2? • Where would you go if you could do a Grand Tour over a few months? Why? Think about: – the sights you would visit. – the food you would eat. – the people you would meet.

14  Unit 1  Travel, trust and tourism

 5

Pronunciation  Elided ’d

   7

CHOOSE

The contraction ’d can mean would or had. Sometimes the ’d can disappear in fast speech if it is followed by a hard consonant like t or d.

1 Think about what your parents or grandparents did during their holidays when they were growing up. Write any similarities and differences compared to what you do during your holidays.

a Listen to the sentences and write down what you hear.     4 b Check your answers with a partner and discuss which contractions are would and which are had. Then practise saying the sentences.

2 Work in groups. Share what you know about tourism in your country in the past compared to now. Talk about:

6

Read about Andrew Skurka. Decide if used to, would and the past simple are used correctly (C) or incorrectly (I). Change the ones which are incorrect. Andrew Skurka is an ultra-hiker. Every year, he (1) used to go on hikes that are thousands of miles long, walking between 25 and 40 miles a day. One of his most amazing tours was circling the Arctic in 176 days. His boots (2) got very wet for 156 of those days and they (3) used to froze overnight. He (4) would then have to force his feet into the icy boots each morning. Unsurprisingly, he (5) didn’t use to see many people during his tours and once, he (6) would spend 24 days completely on his own. He’d sometimes (7) get depressed and (8) cried, but one day he came across a herd of caribou and it (9) used to change his perspective. He (10) realized he was very similar – just one more creature on Earth like them.

• • • • •

h oliday resorts. the kinds of people who visit / visited. the kinds of holidays. the number and length of holidays. destinations people from your country visit / visited.

3 Work in pairs. Tell your partner about two of the following. • S omething you used to believe and why you changed your mind. • Something you used to like doing and why you don’t like it or do it now. • Something you do now that you never used to do and why. • Someone you used to spend a lot of time with and what you would do.

In the past, only young aristocrats were able to visit classical sites such as the Pantheon in Rome, Italy.

Unit 1  Travel, trust and tourism  15

1D  How Airbnb designs for trust

We were aiming to build Olympic trust between people who had never met.

Joe Gebbia

Read about Joe Gebbia and get ready to watch his TED Talk.

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS  Reporting

watch 4

When people tell stories, they often use present tenses to make events sound more immediate. They also often report what people said or what was going through their mind at the time as if they were speaking. 1

Look at the Authentic listening skills box. Listen and complete the extracts.    5 1 I make the mistake of asking him, ?’ ‘ 2 And I’m thinking, ?’ ‘ 3 And the voice in my head goes, ?’ ‘ 4 I’m staring at the ceiling, I’m thinking, ?’ ‘

 2

 3

 5

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Choose the correct options.    1.1

1 From his meeting with the ‘Peace Corps guy’, Joe learns a he should always have an airbed b he should start a hosting business c we should be less fearful of strangers

Work in pairs. Read the sentences below. Discuss what may have happened before somebody said each one.

16  Unit 1  Travel, trust and tourism

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. • Have you or your family ever asked for help from a stranger while on holiday? What happened? • Have you or someone in your family ever helped a stranger while on holiday? What happened? • Why might you trust / not trust a stranger? How do you decide who to trust for help or advice?

Look at your completed extracts in Exercise 1. What do you think happened before? What do you think will happen next?

1 So I’m thinking to myself, ‘What do I do now?’ 2 She looks at me and goes, ‘I’ve met you somewhere before.’ 3 The voice in my head says, ‘Don’t do it!’

  1.0

6

2

He decided to start his business because a there weren’t many hotels in the city b he really needed somewhere to stay c it offered him an opportunity as a designer

3

The business wasn’t immediately successful because a people didn’t trust Joe and his co-founder b the website wasn’t very well designed c it didn’t get any further investment

MY PERSPECTIVE How can you make people feel they can trust each other more? Think of three ideas. Then share them with the class. Does anyone have the same ideas as you?

  7

Watch Part 2 of the talk. Complete these notes. 

  1.2

• E xperiment – shows how host can feel = how business but guest can feel works. Well-designed reputation (review) system – . key to • •

must leave reviews before they are revealed.

= people stop worrying about differences (reputation beats similarity). and prompts = right amount of • honesty and sharing (disclosure). 8

Watch Part 3 of the talk. Then work in groups and summarize what Joe said using these ideas. What did you like about these ideas?    1.3 • • • • • •

 9

when trust works a man suffering a heart attack the sharing economy human connection Seoul, South Korea students and empty-nesters*

 10 VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT

a Watch the clips from the TED Talk. Choose the correct meanings of the words and phrases.    1.4 b Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • What things can increase or reduce anxiety when travelling? • Have you ever met someone on holiday you got on with? Have you kept in touch? Why? / Why not? • Would you be up for doing any of these things on holiday? Why? / Why not? - rafting or bungee jumping - going to a disco - doing a guided tour of a museum - going camping • When did you last rush somewhere? Why? • Have you ever experienced anything that tripped you up? What? CHALLENGE

empty-nesters families whose children have left home

Work in groups. Make a list of things you have which you could share with others either in your area or with people visiting you on holiday. Think about:

Look back at your ideas in Exercise 6. Did Joe mention any of your ideas? Have any of them changed?

• skills and abilities. • knowledge. • possessions that you do not use all the time. How could you share the things in your list in a way that people could trust and avoid danger?

Unit 1  Travel, trust and tourism  17

1E  Trip advice SPEAKING Useful language Making suggestions If sports / sightseeing is their thing, then the best place to go is … If they want to experience a genuine local night out, I’d suggest trying … If they’re only staying here for a short while, they should probably … If you ask me, the one place they really have to go to is … Reacting to suggestions If they’d rather try something different, … might be worth a go. I wouldn’t bother going to … , personally. They’d be best (off) going to …

1

a couple in their 50s or 60s a group of teenage friends

18  Unit 1  Travel, trust and tourism

a father with a young teenage son a young married couple with a child

 2

Compare your list with another pair of students. Make suggestions for the best places for each group of people. Use the Useful language box to help you.

  3

Put the sentences in the correct order to make a conversation between a local person and a guest. Then listen and check your answers.    6 a Well, there’s a great steak place down by the river. b I’m thinking of seeing some sights today. Can you recommend anywhere? c In that case, you’d be best off going to Madragora – a nice little vegetarian place near the park. d OK. Well, I’ll check that out this morning, then. And do you know anywhere good to have lunch? e Great. Thanks for the tip. f Oh, right. Well, actually, I don’t eat meat, so . . . g Well, the Old Town is well worth a visit. There are some amazing buildings there.

 4

Tourists walk across the Perito Moreno Glacier in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina.

Work in pairs. Make a list of three places close to where you live that you would recommend to each of these groups of people. Think about places to stay, places to eat, places to shop, places to visit, etc.

You are going to roleplay two similar conversations to the one in Exercise 3. Underline phrases in Exercise 3 that you want to use. Then have the conversations, using places you know. Take turns being the local person and the guest.

Writing  A review  5

6

Look at page 149 and read the four short online reviews. Decide what kind of place each review is about. Work in pairs. Which reviewer: 1 does not feel he / she got good value for money? 2 managed to negotiate a deal? 3 strongly recommends a place? 4 had to entertain himself / herself quite a lot? 5 complained? 6 had to wait far longer than he / she had been expecting to? 7 felt very comfortable where he / she was? 8 mentions local sights?

   7

Look at page 149 again. Underline the sentences in the reviews that helped you answer the questions in Exercise 6.

    8

WRITING SKILL  Adding comments

Complete the short extracts from different reviews by adding the extra comments (a–d). 1 2 3 4

Great view of the sea from our room, but the hotel restaurant closed at nine, We had an amazing time, but terrible weather on the day we left, We complained about the room, so they offered us two full days in the spa, The beach was a five-minute walk from the hotel, but so was the snake market,

a which meant we were delayed for several hours. b which was rather disappointing. c which was a bit of a culture shock, to say the least. d which was kind of them.   9

Writing strategy Writing reviews In reviews, it’s quite common to use a relative clause starting with which to add a comment about a whole sentence. I was a bit far from my school, which wasn’t ideal. It does great breakfasts, lunches and snacks, which is perfect if you’re feeling hungry. Useful language Introducing follow-up comments On top of that, … What’s more, … One other thing was the fact that … Recommending – and not recommending I can’t recommend it enough. It’s well worth a visit. It’s just not worth it. I’d give it a miss (if I were you).

Choose one of these places and write a review. Plan what you want to say – and think of comments to add, as in Exercise 8. Use the Useful language box to help you. • holiday destination • local café or restaurant • local tourist attraction • place you have stayed

Unit 1  Travel, trust and tourism  19

 2

The business of technology

I N t h i s u ni t Y O U •  discuss young entrepreneurs •  read about online scams •  learn how to be a responsible user of social media •  w atch a TED Talk about responding to scam emails •  p ersuade people to invest in a product 20 

2A  Young business Vocabulary  Setting up a new business A man stands inside a virtual cave at the Gdansk University of Technology in Poland. Virtual caves can be used by architects, doctors and firefighters to simulate real-world scenarios.

1

Look at the photo and read the caption. How do you think the virtual cave works? How can it help people? In what other jobs might the virtual cave be useful?

  2

Work as a class. Discuss the questions. • • • •

  3

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • • • • •

4

What is the difference between an entrepreneur and a businessperson? What qualities and skills do you think you need to be an entrepreneur? How easy is it for young people to become businesspeople or entrepreneurs? Can you think of any young entrepreneurs? Who was the youngest? What was his or her business?

How do people raise money for a business or a charity? Who might businesspeople negotiate with? What about? In what ways do businesses market products? What might a business or a person recover from? What are good and bad ways of handling pressure?

What skills do you need to start a new business? Choose the correct option (a–c) to complete each skill.   1   2   3

a negotiate

something new b invent

a raise

money from investors b lend c ask

a handle

with suppliers to get the best deal b manage c negotiate

  4 find partners to a send

b distribute

c redesign

the product in different countries c deal

  5 have the confidence to a recover b repair   6 be good at a meeting

your product to increase sales b networking c marketing

  7 be capable of a preparing

b holding

  8 be able to a  deal with

b talk

  9 10 5

6

from failure c accept

stress and pressure c handling

a diverse range of people c  get on

a  apply for

a team of people b figure

a live

in an impressive office b  be based c show

c  put together

MY PERSPECTIVE Work in pairs. Decide on the three most important skills in Exercise 4 that make a new business a success. Can you think of any other skills? Explain your choices in Exercise 5 to another pair of students. Do they agree? Why? / Why not?

Unit 2  The business of technology  21

Listening   7

Listen to a woman talking about entrepreneurs. Think about the questions and take notes.    7

Grammar  Present perfect forms and past simple  10 Look at the Grammar box. Read the sentences (a–c).

Then answer the questions. 1 Which tense is each of the verb forms in bold? 2 Why do you think the different forms are used?

1 How is being an entrepreneur changing? 2 According to the speaker, what is the most important aspect of being an entrepreneur? 8

1 Nick D’Aloisio became a millionaire when he was 18. 2 Amanda Hocking didn’t go through a traditional publisher to market her books. 3 The speaker suggests that most investments from banks in the past went to older, wealthy businessmen. 4 D’Aloisio’s first investor chose him because he was young and had potential. 5 Kickstarter investors buy a share of the company. 6 Projects advertised on Kickstarter aim to make a profit. 7 The majority of Kickstarter projects get no investment. 8 Hocking is an example of recovering from failure.  9

Present perfect forms and past simple

Work in pairs. Discuss the sentences. Are they true (T) or false (F)? Then listen again to check.    7

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 How has the internet changed entrepreneurship? 2 Do you think Kickstarter is a good idea? What might be the benefits and risks of raising money this way? 3 What do you think might be good or bad about being an entrepreneur?

22  Unit 2  The business of technology

a D’Aloisio’s first investor contacted him by email from Hong Kong. b  Kickstarter has been running for several years now. c Most successful entrepreneurs have failed at least once. Check your answers on page 130. Do Exercises 1–3.  11

Based on your ideas in Exercise 10, complete the summary using each of the forms. The number of entrepreneurs (1) (grow) ever since the arrival of new technology and online services. This new technology (2) (reduce) the barriers that previously (3) (discourage) people from setting up a business.

 12 Decide if the underlined verbs use the correct forms.

Change the ones you think are incorrect.

Topher White is a young entrepreneur. At university he (1) trained as a physicist, but since 2012 he (2) ran a nonprofit company, Rainforest Connection, to help prevent the illegal practice of logging*. He (3) has invented a system using old mobile phones and solar power to hear the sound of saws and vehicles that illegal loggers use. The phones then send a warning to guards so they can stop the activity before it does too much damage. Topher first (4) has tested the system in Borneo, and in 2014, his Kickstarter campaign (5) has raised almost $170,000 to expand the company. Since then he’s (6) been working with groups such as the Tembe tribe in South America as well as with people in Africa and Indonesia to adapt the system to meet local needs. They successfully (7) detected a lot of illegal activity. The work Topher is doing is important because in some parts of the world they (8) have been losing ten percent of forest cover this century, and deforestation is one of the biggest contributors to climate change. logging cutting down trees

 13 Complete the sentences so they are true for you.

1 I haven’t 2 3 I 4 I 5 The number of the last few years.

since . has been doing a lot better since . over the last five years. for the first time last year. has grown a lot over

 14 MY PERSPECTIVE

Look again at the three most important skills you listed in Exercise 5. Give examples of when you have demonstrated these skills. List any other qualities or ideas you have that show you would be a good entrepreneur.

 15 Work in groups. Try to convince other students that

you would make the best entrepreneur. Use present perfect forms and the past simple. I’ve been running our school debating team for the last two years, so I believe that I can negotiate well with other people. I studied for nine exams last year, so I think I’m capable of handling stress and pressure.

Topher White attaches a Rainforest Connection listening device to a tree in the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil to help stop illegal logging.

Unit 2  The business of technology  23

2B  Risky business Reading 1

Complete the sentences with these pairs of words. confirm + scam emails + filter infected + backups social media + posting

deleted + permission inbox + attached profile + edit store + USB stick

without my 1 Some of my posts were . I’ve no idea why! manage to 2 I can’t believe how many . get through my spam . He’s always 3 He’s very active on new updates and adding photos. very private, and I often go 4 I keep my things I’ve written. back and 5 This strange email just arrived in my to it, so I deleted it. with a file my bank 6 When they asked me to . details, I started to think it must be a all my documents in the cloud now 7 I . rather than use a a lot of my files and 8 I got a virus that . I didn’t have any  2

Work in pairs. How do you think the things in Exercise 1 might happen? Why might people do some of them?

 3

Look at the infographic and read the stories. Answer the questions. 1 What mistake did each person make? 2 What was the result of each mistake?

  4

VOCABULARY BUILDING  Adjective and noun collocations 1 When you learn adjectives, it is a good idea to remember the nouns that they describe. Sometimes the adjective is next to the noun; however, sometimes it appears later in the sentence. It’s a very user-friendly website with lots of functions and it is also very secure.    7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

6

MY PERSPECTIVE Make a list of the different ways you could protect yourself from the same kinds of online crimes that Laura, Bruno and Janella encountered. Then work in pairs. Compare your lists. Did you come up with the same ideas?

24  Unit 2  The business of technology

a hotels b relative c PlayStation d documents e fees f price g sense h details

You will often see visuals and charts in newspapers, books and web posts to add information and support a written text. You need to check that these statistics are from a reliable source and interpret the data for yourself before you read. 8

Work in groups. Look at the cybercrime graphs on page 25. Discuss the questions. 1 Where does the data come from? Do you think this is a reliable source? 2 What crimes do the graphs focus on? What do you know about them? 3 What’s the most common crime? Why do you think that is? 4 Which age groups are least / most affected? Why do you think that is? 5 Do you think the statistics would be different for your country? Why? Do you know where to find them?

Work in pairs. Answer the questions.

Read the stories again to check your ideas in Exercise 4. Identify the parts that helped you decide.

the normal a second-hand my personal luxury common a distant official legal

Critical thinking  Interpreting data

1 Who didn’t realize they’d made a mistake for quite some time? 2 Who received several emails from the same person? 3 Who thought they had found a bargain? 4 Who was scared into responding too quickly? 5 Who accepted the blame for what happened? 6 Who didn’t read a product description carefully enough?  5

Match the adjectives with the nouns they are used with in the stories on page 25.

  9

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. • Which of the three mistakes do you think is the most / least serious? Why? • Why do you think each person acted as they did? • What do you think each person did after realizing their mistake? • Have you heard any stories about similar mistakes? If so, what happened?

Online crime

Laura

One day last year, I got a call from what I thought was my bank. They said someone was trying to take money from my account without my permission and that they needed to confirm my personal details to stop it. I’ll be honest – I didn’t really understand what was going on and wanted to stop anything bad from happening, so I gave them my name and address and date of birth. I didn’t hear back, but a month later I got my credit card statement and found someone had spent over £11,000 on flights and luxury hotels!

  8   The world becomes better connected every day. It’s now easier than ever to keep in touch with friends and family around the world. Online banking allows people to access their accounts from anywhere that has an internet connection. People don’t even have to leave the house to go shopping! However, with greater connectivity comes greater risk. Every year, hundreds of thousands of people become victims of online crime. We asked our readers to share some of their terrible tech tales while we examine where the crimes originate.

Origin of crime: USA

Romania USA

West Africa

Bruno

I was surfing the web one day when I found a site selling Xboxes and PlayStations. I couldn’t believe how cheap they were. They had stuff on there for half the normal price! I clicked on one item and bought what was advertised as a ‘PlayStation 4 original box and receipt’. I assumed it was second-hand and, as it was only €150, I bought it without checking the details. You can imagine how I felt a few days later when the postman brought me just the box and the receipt!

Janella Looking back, it was my

own fault, but when I got an email saying a distant relative had died and left me millions of dollars, common sense went out of the window! It was from someone claiming to be a lawyer in West Africa. I know my dad’s side of the family had connections there, so I thought it must be true. They attached documents that looked official and kept writing, so eventually I sent them AUS $8,000 to pay the legal fees. Of course, it was a scam and I never heard from them again … or got my money back!

Origin of crime: Romania

Cybercrime by age (USA)

Cybercrime by type (USA)

70

70

60

60

Number of victims (thousands)

Number of victims (thousands)

Origin of crime: West Africa

50 40 30 20 10 0 Under 20

20–29

30–39

40–49

50–59

Over 60

50 40 30 20 10 0 Auction fraud

Non-payment/ Non-delivery

Credit card fraud

Malware/ Scareware

Phishing

Identity theft

Source: U.S. Department of Justice / Federal Bureau of Investigation  Statistics shown are for 2015.

Unit 2  The business of technology  25

2C  What’s in a post? Grammar  Verb patterns -ing or infinitive with to 1

Work in pairs. Look at the Grammar box. Which of these verbs can be followed by the -ing form? Which can be followed by the infinitive with to? admit agree arrange can’t stand consider decide delay enjoy expect finish hope intend mind miss offer plan practise promise recommend refuse Verb patterns (-ing or infinitive with to) When two verbs are used together, the second one often takes the -ing form or the infinitive with to. They attached documents that looked official and kept writing. Websites such as Kickstarter allow entrepreneurs to avoid selling part of their business to an investor.

Do you enjoy posting on social media?

They needed to confirm my personal details. Over half of the campaigns on Kickstarter don’t receive any funding because they fail to reach their set target.   2

Choose the correct options to complete the blog post. If you’re anything like most people, you probably enjoy (1) posting / to post on social media. Maybe you hope (2) creating / to create a particular kind of image of yourself, or intend (3) showing / to show others what good taste you have! You’re probably not planning (4) providing / to provide information that could be used against you in the future, but every time you post online or ‘like’ something, you’re agreeing (5) sharing / to share that personal information with the world! Most of us avoid (6) revealing / to reveal too much about ourselves face to face, but for some reason, we don’t mind (7) doing / to do this online! Everything you decide (8) making / to make public on the internet helps to build a very detailed picture of who you are and what you believe – and we’re failing (9) understanding / to understand that this helps companies guess your age, gender, education, political views … and much more! Of course, most social media companies refuse (10) guaranteeing / to guarantee privacy for users. After all, we are their product. What they sell is the information we give them! Given this, I recommend (11) using / to use science to help us gain control over our data! Sites could warn us of the risks we are taking when we post certain kinds of information, for example. Failing that, of course, we could all just consider (12) posting / to post less!

  3

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • • • •

26  Unit 2  The business of technology

How much do you think you reveal about yourself on social media? Why? What kinds of things do you post online? Why? Are you concerned about privacy online? Why? / Why not? What do you think social media sites do with the personal information they gather? How does this make you feel?

4

Complete the comments with the correct form of these verbs.

Verbs with two objects

be feel have hear post protect quit spend

The indirect object is usually a person and the second, direct object is usually a thing. Can you email me your essays, please, instead of handing me them in class?

Some verbs can be followed by two objects.

Posted 3 hours ago Eric Wong I can’t stand (1) like everything I do online is being used by someone. Really, we should social media! The only all promise (2) reason we don’t is because we’re too scared we’d from friends! miss (3)

8

anything a special dinner

Posted 2 weeks ago Luisa Hernandez If you use social media, you should expect these experiences. Why should (4) our privacy? companies offer (5) They already provide us with free services. Surely that’s enough.

6

2 My dad bought birthday.

5 If I were you, I wouldn’t tell He can’t keep a secret! 6 My sister and I cooked their wedding anniversary.

. for

Check your answers on page 130. Do Exercise 6.  9

Write your own short response to the blog post in Exercise 2. Include two or more verbs from Exercise 1. Then share your comments in groups and see how much you agree with one another.

CHOOSE 1 Work in pairs. Write a blog post explaining best practices when it comes to using social media. Use as many of these phrases as you can.

Objects before -ing and to Some verbs always have an object before an -ing form or an infinitive with to. When they asked me to confirm my bank details, I started to think it must be a scam. Look at the Grammar box. Complete the sentences so that they are true for you. Then explain your ideas to a partner. My parents always expected me In a few years’ time, I can see myself . If I could, I’d hire someone We should do more to prevent people I can still remember begging my parents

for my

4 By posting on their website, you’re basically giving to use your data.

Work in groups. Do you agree with each of the comments in Exercise 4? Why? / Why not?

1 2 3 4 5

a new tablet the remote control

3 If you’re under 20, it’s difficult to find a bank that’ll give to start a business.

Check your answers on page 130. Do Exercise 4.

  7

a loan permission

1 This programme is terrible. Let’s see what else is on. Pass me the remote control .

Posted a month ago Back to The Future The secret of being happy is to practise more patient! Delay (7) (6) until you’re sure you really want the world to have access to what you write – and arrange as much time offline as you can! (8)  5

Look at the Grammar box. Complete the sentences with these direct objects. You will also have to add an indirect object. The first one has been done for you.

. .

If I were you, I’d avoid … I’d strongly recommend … It’s best not to agree / arrange … Lots of people fail … You may want to prevent people … It’s sometimes good to ask friends … Don’t allow everyone … Think carefully before you tell …

2 Write a short story about someone who started a new business. Use at least five verbs from pages 21–27. 3 Work in groups. Search online for a story about someone who was a victim of cybercrime. Report what happened to another group. Use at least five verbs from pages 21–27.

. .

Check your answers on page 130. Do Exercise 5.

Unit 2  The business of technology  27

2D  This is what happens when you reply to spam email

Crazy stuff happens when you start replying to scam emails.

James Veitch

Read about James Veitch and get ready to watch his TED Talk. 

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS Intonation and pitch

watch 4

Work in groups. Decide what this email means and why it was written.

 5

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Answer the questions. 

When we are surprised or shocked by what someone says, we often repeat a key word, phrase or short sentence with a high pitch and a questioning intonation. We may then add a comment with a falling tone. 1

  2.0

Look at the Authentic listening skills box. Work in pairs. Try practising the short exchange. A: We can start with 50 kilograms as a trial shipment. B: 50 kilograms? There’s no point doing this at all unless you’re shipping at least a metric tonne.

 2

Listen to James and compare your intonation with his.    9

 3

Work in pairs. Take turns responding to the comments using the same intonation pattern as James. 1 I got an email offering to distribute gold. 2 He’s 16 years old. 3 It cost ten dollars. 4 I’ve never watched Star Wars. 5 Her dad is the mayor of our city. 6 My bank called me and asked for my address.

28  Unit 2  The business of technology

  2.1

1 How was ‘Solomon Odonkoh’ trying to make money? 2 Do you still have the same answer to Exercise 4? 6

Work in pairs. Put the sentences in the correct order. a I figured I had to knock it on the head. b On real estate, what about you? c Dude, you have to use the code! d I’m a hedge fund executive bank manager. e I have to go to bed now. f I could do what I think we’ve all always wanted to do. g If we’re going to do it, let’s go big. h I didn’t hear back. I thought, ‘I’ve gone too far.’

  7

 8

Watch Part 1 of the talk again to check your ideas in Exercise 6.    2.1

Watch Part 2 of the talk. Check your ideas in Exercise 8. How effective do you think James’s approach is? Why?    2.2

 10 Watch Part 3 of the talk. How are the emails James

receives from ‘Solomon Odonkoh’ and the emails he receives this time similar?    2.3

VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT a Watch the clips from the TED Talk. Choose the correct meanings of the words and phrases.    2.4

Work in groups. Discuss why you think James Veitch replies to spam. Which of these points is he trying to make? a He replies to spam email when he is bored. b He suggests it is a good way to spend any spare time. c He replies to spam email to take up the time of the spammer. He suggests that this stops them from contacting other people. d He replies to spam email because he is interested in the financial benefits. He suggests that people can make money by doing business online.

  9

 11

b Work in pairs. Tell your partner about: • something or someone who turned up unexpectedly. • a situation that got out of hand / went too far. • something or someone that / who intrigues you. • something you had to knock on the head.  12 MY PERSPECTIVE

Work in pairs. Come up with five different ways to deal with internet scams. Then discuss which ones are most relevant to these groups of people. Explain your reasons. • elderly people • people who enjoy playing video games • people who do a lot of online shopping CHALLENGE Work in groups. Design a questionnaire to find out about people’s experiences of internet scams. You should find out how much is already known and what, if anything, people are doing to reduce the risks. You will need at least ten questions.

Unit 2  The business of technology  29

2E  Investment opportunity SPEAKING Speaking strategy Persuading When we are persuading people, we sometimes turn our own experiences and opinions into a negative question to challenge the other person’s ideas. I think it will lose money. Don’t you think it’ll lose money? I’d find it really useful. Wouldn’t you find it really useful? I have sometimes had that problem. Haven’t you ever had that problem?

1

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. • Are there any TV programmes about business or selling products in your country? Do you watch them? Why? / Why not? • Would you be good at selling a product? Why? / Why not? • Have you ever had to present something in front of people? What did you present? Was the presentation successful? Why? / Why not?

 2

Work in pairs. Read about the Kickstarter project. One person should think of reasons to invest and one person should think of reasons not to invest. Then discuss your reasons and try to persuade each other. mXers was set up by high school student Bharat Pulgam. He has invented a new kind of earphones that allow you to easily replace the different parts that can break so you don’t have to buy a whole new set. They also allow you to customize your earphones for an individual look. mXers needs money to develop the product and start production.

 3

Make negative questions from these sentences. Which negative questions could you use to support your reasons in Exercise 2? Why? 1 It’d be good to have something like that. 2 I think it’s a bad idea to give money to strangers online. 3 There’s something similar to that already. 4 I have sometimes wished I could do that. 5 I would be happy to pay a bit extra to help.

 4

A woman harvests cocoa in Ghana for Fairafric.

30  Unit 2  The business of technology

Pronunciation  Intonation for persuasion a Listen to the negative questions and notice the intonation.    10 b Practise saying the negative questions. 1 Wouldn’t it be good to have something like that? 2 Don’t you think it’s a bad idea to give money to strangers online? 3 Isn’t there something similar to that already? 4 Haven’t you ever wished you could do that? 5 Wouldn’t you be happy to pay a bit extra to help?

 5

Work in pairs. Read about two other Kickstarter projects. Choose one each and try to persuade each other to invest. The Possible Project is an after-school programme that teaches teenagers, mainly from low-income families, the skills to be entrepreneurs. The project has been running for several years and has trained over 250 students. The team wants to raise money for a laser cutter so that students can make more varied products quickly. Hendrik Reimers is a German chocolate maker. He has set up a chocolatemaking company, Fairafric, in Ghana. By producing the chocolate bars in their own country rather than only exporting cocoa beans, people in Ghana can earn over 25 percent more – even compared to fair trade chocolate. The money raised will help fund production, packaging, shipping and distribution.

Writing  A persuasive article 6

Read the short article on page 149 and find out: 1 what the aim of the article is. 2 what the nightmare is. 3 what the business is.

  7

WRITING SKILL  Getting people’s attention Work in pairs. Look at the article again and answer the questions. 1 2 3 4

How does the article grab your attention? How does the article try to persuade you to continue reading? Where does the factual information come from? What is the purpose of the final paragraph and how does it relate to the introduction?

8

Would you invest in the i-save? Why? / Why not?

  9

Using the product you chose in Exercise 5, a product you have heard about recently or something you have invented yourself, write an article to explain the product and encourage people to invest or find out more about it.

Useful language Getting people’s attention • Have you ever wanted to …? Well, now you could have the opportunity. • Have you ever wondered …? Well, now scientists have discovered the answer. • Have you ever dreamed of …? Well, that’s exactly what happened to …! • Have you ever …? Well, all that could be a thing of the past thanks to …. • Do you think …? Well, think again!

 10 Work in groups. Share your article. People in your group should ask you

some questions or write some comments about it.

Unit 2  The business of technology  31

 3

Faster, higher, stronger

I N t h i s u ni t Y O U •  describe sportspeople •  r ead about the lengths countries will go to in order to host the Olympics and do well •  learn about small changes that can make big differences •  w atch a TED Talk about how athletes are improving •  write and carry out a survey

32 

3A  Incredible achievements Vocabulary  Describing sportspeople 1

Work in groups. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. • Would you like to be in a crowd like this? Why? / Why not? • Which sport do you think they are watching? Is it popular in your country? • Which are the most popular sports in your country? Do you like them? Why? / Why not? Do you know any famous people who take part in them?

  2

Work in pairs. Identify the options which do not fit. 1 He has … incredible awareness / very energetic / great technique / a real passion for the game. 2 She’s … a very skilful player / a really great attitude / a forward / a positive role model. 3 She won … a great goal / silver at the Olympics / the world championship / a gold medal. 4 He scored … an average of 20 points a game / 300 goals in his career / the most last season / the race. 5 He set a new / He won the / He holds the / He smashed the old … world record. 6 She captained / She was the star of / She competed / She played a key role in … the team.

 3

Complete the sentences with words from Exercise 2. 1 The whole team have a really great . They always fight right to the end of the game. the world record she set 30 years ago. 2 She still in the 400 metres. 3 When I was younger, I won a gold . He can anticipate the other 4 He has incredible players’ moves and create opportunities for scoring. 5 He was a key player in their success, but he never the team. wrestling. 6 I’ve always had a real passion in four Olympics and won two golds, one 7 She’s and one bronze. in the last World Cup final. 8 He scored the winning

Sports fans experience a range of emotions as they watch an event.

 4

Choose five phrases from Exercise 2 to describe a sportsperson, a friend and a family member. Then tell your partner about the people you thought of. My favourite footballer is Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang. He has incredible awareness and scores some amazing goals. I think my big sister is a positive role model for me. She has a great attitude and never gives up.

 5

MY PERSPECTIVE How do you think sports / sportspeople have changed according to these categories? • fame / celebrity status • equipment • achievements

Unit 3  Faster, higher, stronger  33

Listening 6

  7

Listen to four people explain why they admire certain sportspeople. As you listen:    11

GRAMMAR  Determiners   9

Complete the information about the functions of determiners using these words.

1 find out where each sportsperson is / was from. 2 find an example of something each sportsperson won.

articles demonstratives possessives quantifiers

Listen to the four people again. What does each person say about the following?    11

Determiners are words used before nouns. They have two main functions:

1

275 times over 150 eight or nine out of ten

2

popular Italian celebrations

3

videos personal problems a great lesson

4

her future husband introduced

• They show which noun we mean, using (1) (the, a[n]), (2) (this, that, these, those) and (3) (my, your, his, her, its, our, their). • They show how much / how many of something, . using (4)  10 Look at the Grammar box. Identify the determiners

in the sentences. Determiners

a That year, Susi won the women’s singles. b Ask any Indonesian of his generation. c He won many medals, including one gold. d Without him, fewer people would watch motorcycle road racing. e We’d never won any gold medals.

fought Check your answers on page 132. Do Exercises 1–3. 8

Work in groups. Discuss which of the four sportspeople you think achieved the most. Explain your ideas.

Valentino Rossi (left) attempts to overtake Maverick Vinales during a race at the Motorland Aragón Circuit in Alcañiz, Spain.

34  Unit 3  Faster, higher, stronger

 11

Work in pairs. Complete the sentences with determiners. Then discuss your choices.

 13

Decide which sentences you agree with in Exercise 12. Change the sentences that you do not agree with. Share your ideas in groups. Number 1 isn’t true for me. I like some sports. I’m really into basketball and baseball. Number 2 isn’t true. Lots of athletes from my country have won medals!

 14

Complete the biography with one word in each gap.

1 She used to be 2 3 4 5 6  12

forward in US women’s football team and she’s one of the most successful footballers ever. country 275 times She played for man has ever and scored 150 goals. managed that! people can claim to have made Not own. a sport popular more or less on ego problems and He has great personality. coach has shown me some videos best. of Joaquín when he was at end, even She always fought right to hope. when it seemed there was

Yao Ming is (1) retired professional basketball player. He stopped playing quite a years ago, but he’s still one of (2) most famous athletes in China. (3) of great memories of I have a (4) years watching him play. He spent (5) playing in the NBA in North America, which was amazing Chinese player had ever because (6) have done that before – and (7) hardly , if not all, done it since, either! (8) Chinese people know him and are very proud of what he achieved. He’s instantly recognizable because he’s 2.29 other player metres tall. He made (9) in the NBA look small in comparison! In the end, though, of injuries that ended he had a (10) his career.

Work in pairs. Look at the corrected sentences. Discuss why you think the original sentences were wrong. 1 I don’t like no any sport. 2 Hardly any athlete athletes from my country has have ever won an Olympic medal. 3 I think I’m pretty healthy. I mean, I eat very few little junk food and exercise a lot. 4 There aren’t much many places near here where you can exercise outside. 5 A little few people I know are absolutely crazy about their favourite sports team. 6 I don’t think it’s right that some sportspeople earn so many much money. 7 Most of people I know have no interest in football. 8 I try and do some exercise every weekends weekend if I can, but it’s not always possible.

 15

Think again about the people you chose in Exercise 4. Make notes about their lives and achievements – and why you admire them.

 16

Work in groups. Tell each other as much as you can about the people you wrote about in Exercise 15. Ask each other extra questions.

Unit 3  Faster, higher, stronger  35

3B  Is the cost of coming top too high?

Fireworks explode at the opening ceremony of the London Olympic Games in 2012.

Olympic gold Vocabulary building  Synonyms in texts

5 They helped to set up a programme that promotes excellence in sport. They helped to a system that promotes excellence in sport. 6 Children are chosen as potential stars. Children hope as potential stars. to be

Writers often use words or phrases with similar meanings to make their work more interesting and to avoid repetition. Note that synonyms are never used in exactly the same way or with the same words.

  2

prove to have talent – prove to have a natural ability

Countries competing to host the Olympics will often spend huge amounts to hold the 16-day event. 1

1 2 3 4 5

Complete the sentences with these synonyms. Use a dictionary if necessary. establish funding hold selected sums top 1 Countries compete to host the Olympics. Countries spend huge amounts to the 16-day event. 2 Hosts spend huge amounts. of money. Hosts invest large 3 They have programmes for elite athletes. competitors. They support 4 There is money to help develop successful athletes. is directly linked to success. This

36  Unit 3  Faster, higher, stronger

Work in pairs. Rewrite the phrases using synonyms. achieve their targets core principle got its highest ranking linked to success tackle the challenges you face

READING  3

Work in groups. Which of these statements do you agree with? Can you think of any exceptions to your view? 1 2 3 4

The most important thing is not winning but taking part. Hosting the Olympics is a waste of money. In sport and life, you get what you pay for. Increasing participation in sport at low levels could help tackle health and social challenges.

  12   When Baron Pierre de Coubertin set up the

5

10

15

20

25

  4

first modern Olympics in Athens in 1896, he declared that ‘The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not winning, but taking part; the essential thing in life is not conquering but fighting well.’ Sometimes, these days it can seem that this core principle has been forgotten, (1) . The hosting countries spend huge amounts of money to hold the 16-day event. Many of the countries taking part invest huge sums in programmes for elite athletes. And that money is not spent to come fourth; the only thing that matters is having ‘the best Games’ and winning medals – preferably gold. The figures are enormous! Depending on who you ask, China spent $40 billion on the Beijing Olympics, Russia invested $50 billion in Sochi; while Rio and London each cost between 14 and 18 billion dollars. In terms of money for athletes, the UK spent over $400 million on supporting 1,300 top competitors. This funding is directly linked to success: those who fail to achieve their targets will have their funding cut and in some cases completely removed. ! (2) Similarly, some years ago, China established a system known as Juguo Tizhi (‘whole country support for the elite sport system’) for developing athletes. Children are identified as potential sports stars at the ages of

Read about the lengths some countries will go to in order to host the Olympics and do well. Complete the text with the phrases (a–f). a the more money you spend, the better the results b overtaken by the other motto de Coubertin is known for: ‘faster, higher, stronger’ c local clubs and competitions; facilities for people to keep fit and play for fun d and then to be full-time professional athletes representing their country e where they train for up to 15 hours a week f So much for the value of just ‘taking part’

 5

30

35

40

45

50

six to nine and are sent to special sports schools run . Those who by local government, (3) prove to have talent move on to a semi-professional schedule of four to six hours a day, five or six days a week. After some years, the top performers then move on to provincial training centres. Students there live and breathe their sport and hope to be selected for their provincial team (4) . There are around 400,000 young people in this system whose main purpose is to ‘win glory for their nation’ and, in the years before Beijing, it accounted for a very large percentage of all sports funding. In both sport and life, you tend to get what you pay for; (5) . China came first in Beijing, and Great Britain got its highest ranking for over 100 years in 2016. The question is whether this search for success at all costs comes at the expense of investing in something which is arguably more valuable: (6) . Seeing your team win can obviously lift your spirits. However, this feeling is only temporary, while taking part in regular exercise and sport has been shown to have long-term psychological benefits, as well as having other advantages. Given this, surely spending more money on increasing sports participation from the lowest levels up would be a better way of tackling some of the health and social challenges that many countries face.

CRITICAL THINKING  Supporting arguments Sometimes writers select information to support their point of view. 6

• Six million dollars of the Beijing Olympics’ costs went on sport. The rest included new subway lines, an airport terminal, a light railway and roads. • The majority of Juguo Tizhi athletes retire from their sport without formal educational qualifications. • According to the Chinese National Audit Office, the Beijing Olympics made a profit of $146 million. • Montreal took over 30 years to pay off its debts from holding the Olympics.

MY PERSPECTIVE Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Would you like to participate in a system like Juguo Tizhi? Why? / Why not? • Do you know any schools that specialize in sport? Do you think they are a good idea? Why? / Why not? • How much sport do you have to do at school? How much importance is given to winning? • Have you seen any great sporting events? How did they make you feel? Why?

Work in pairs. Discuss whether you could use these facts to support an argument for spending money on the Olympics. Why? / Why not?

   7

A city in your country wants to host the Olympics. Divide into two teams – one for and one against. In your teams, discuss the arguments you would give. Then debate the issue as a class. Think about: • the impact on the local community. • what would happen after the Olympics. • alternatives to hosting the Olympics. Unit 3  Faster, higher, stronger  37

3C  Getting better all the time Grammar  Comparatives and superlatives 1

How far do you agree with this quote? Give examples to show how things are better or worse now than they were in the past. ‘This is the best time to be alive – ever.’ TED Speaker Gareth Cliff

Comparatives and superlatives a Bicycles have improved and become far more aerodynamic. b There are many more people training today. c Athletes are training harder and more intelligently than before. d The running tracks used in the 1930s were not as fast as the ones today. e The soft surface of old running tracks stole much more energy from athletes’ legs compared to modern tracks. f Usain Bolt is the fastest man in history. g On average, shot-putters are now two and a half inches taller and 130 pounds heavier than they were in the 1920s. h The current hour record in cycling is only slightly better than it was over 40 years ago. i The more money governments spend on athletes, the better the results.   2

Look at the Grammar box. Read the sentences about how sports and sportspeople have changed. Answer the questions. 1 Which sentences use a comparative form with: • an adjective? • an adverb? • a noun? 2 Which sentence uses a superlative adjective? 3 Which sentence emphasizes that something is ‘less than’? 4 Which of the words in bold show a small difference and which show a big difference? 5 Why do we say many more people, but much more energy? What is the opposite of both of them? 6 Which sentence shows how one change causes another change to happen at the same time?

Check your answers on page 132. Do Exercises 4 and 5.  3

PRONUNCIATION  Linking words together in fast speech

When one word ends in a consonant sound and the next begins with a vowel sound, we often link the two words together when speaking. I don’t do it as much … may sound like: I don’t do it as (tas) much … If one word ends with a consonant sound and the next word starts with the same consonant sound, we often leave out the first consonant sound. … than it did last season may sound like: … than it did last season a Read about linking words together in fast speech. Then listen to the sentences. Identify where you hear the links.    13 Swimmers wear caps and body suits to help them move through the water faster than other competitors. 38  Unit 3  Faster, higher, stronger

1  2  3  4 

I’m better at it than I used to be. It’s the best thing I’ve experienced in my life. I don’t do it as much as I used to. It’s a lot more popular than it used to be.

5  6  7  8 

It’s a bit more difficult than it was in the past. It’s far easier than it was in the past. I’m not as good at it as I’d like to be. They’re doing worse than they did last season.

b Work in groups. Replace it in each sentence to make sentences that are true for you. I’m better at speaking English than I used to be!   4

Read about how small changes made a big difference for the British cycling team. How can small changes make big differences in your life? Between the Olympics in 1908 and 2004, the British cycling team won just three gold medals. No British cyclist had even come close to winning (1) world’s greatest cycle race, the Tour de France. Yet over the next 12 years, the British team won more than 25 gold medals and had two winners of the Tour. How could the better? team perform so (2) The first thing was that cycling received a (3) more funding (4) it had had before and, thanks also to a new Olympic track in Manchester, the team could train (5) intensively. The coaches also began to focus on making small improvements in lots of areas. This was not just about training better and eating (6) healthily but also included things like teaching the cyclists to wash their hands properly and finding the comfortable pillow for them (7) cleaner their hands, to use at night! (8) colds and viruses the cyclists the (9) pick up, and the more training they can do. If they do not they need, they get as much sleep (10) the next day. may ride one percent (11) The more of these small improvements you can make, the the difference compared (12) your competitors. (13)

6

CHOOSE 1 W rite a short essay on the question in Exercise 1. Use comparatives in your response. 2 Make a list of five things that are better compared to the past and five things that are worse compared to the past. Use comparatives to explain the differences. 3 Work in pairs. How many small changes can you think of which would contribute to these big improvements? Explain how the changes will affect the final result. •  Improving the performance of a school’s sports team •  Getting higher grades at school •  Increasing people’s life expectancy in your country •  Stopping global warming

On average, elite shotputters are now two and a half inches taller and 130 pounds heavier than they were in the 1920s.

With the recent successes in British cycling, there are (14) more people cycling in the country than there used to be and having a much bigger pool of riders improves the chances of finding talented cyclists to continue that success. There is a lesson here for all of us. We often set ourselves big goals which aren’t so easy to achieve when perhaps we should focus on all the things we can do better. Small changes can add (15) up to a big difference.  5

Complete the summary in Exercise 4 using one word in each gap. Compare your ideas with a partner.

Unit 3  Faster, higher, stronger  39

3D  Are athletes really getting faster, better, stronger?

We all have this feeling that we’re somehow just getting better as a human race … but it’s not like we’ve evolved into a new species in a century.

David Epstein

Read about David Epstein and get ready to watch his talk.  

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS Slowing down and stressing words

watch   3

Speakers will often slow down and stress words when they are contrasting two ideas. The surrounding language can sound very fast. 1

Look at the Authentic listening skills box. Listen to an extract from the TED Talk. Identify where David slows down and stresses words.    14

Work in pairs. Decide where the contrasts are in the extracts. Practise saying them. 1 Usain Bolt started by propelling himself out of blocks down a specially fabricated carpet designed to allow him to travel as fast as humanly possible. Jesse Owens, on the other hand, ran on cinders. 2 Rather than blocks, Jesse Owens had a gardening trowel that he had to use to dig holes in the cinders to start from. 3 … had he been running on the same surface as Bolt, he wouldn’t have been 14 feet behind, he would have been within one stride. 4 Rather than the last beep, Owens would have been the second beep. Listen to it again. 5 Rather than the average body type, you want highlyspecialized bodies that fit into certain athletic niches.

40  Unit 3  Faster, higher, stronger

Work in pairs. Which of these sports do you do or watch? What equipment, skills and physical attributes do you need for each one? athletics gymnastics

 4

The winner of the 2012 Olympic marathon ran two hours and eight minutes. Had he been racing against the winner of the 1904 Olympic marathon, he would have won by nearly an hour and a half. 2

  3.0  

basketball swimming

cycling tennis

football water polo

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Decide what David is going to argue.    3.1 a The human body has evolved to be better at sports. b New sporting records are largely down to technology and professionalism. c Sport is a natural part of human development.

 5

Watch Part 2 of the talk. Complete the summary with a number, year or measurement.    3.2 In (1) , Jesse Owens held the world metres. If he had run record in the (2) more recently against Usain Bolt, he would’ve finished feet behind him. However, Owens (3) was competing in very different times, and modern runners are greatly helped by technological advances. Given the same conditions, Owens would have been stride of Bolt! within (4) Technology also helped to improve the hour record that by almost cyclist Eddy Merckx set in (5) miles, but after the rules were (6) , cyclists had to use the changed in (7) same equipment. Subsequently, they were only able to feet further than Merckx. go (8)

6

Watch Part 3 of the talk. Match what David mentions (1–6) with the points he is making (a–f).    3.3 1 2 3 4 5 6

a Watch the clips from the TED Talk. Choose the correct meanings of the words and phrases.    3.5 b Work in pairs and think of at least one example of:

high-jumpers and shot-putters digital technology financial incentives, fame and glory Michael Phelps and Hicham El Guerrouj the Kalenjin tribe a radiator

a The move towards specialized types of bodies for particular sports accelerated. b Kenyans are the best marathon runners. c It made elite sport more available to a wider group of people. d Some people might have long thin legs because of evolution. e Swimmers have long bodies and runners require proportionately longer legs. f Specific groups of people have advantages for some sports.    7

VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT

8

1 a recent change or event that has affected people throughout the world. 2 someone or something that changed the face of your country. 3 two brands which are essentially the same. 4 an activity that has shrunk in popularity.  9

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • How much of David’s talk was new to you? Was there anything he said you already knew? •  What were the three most interesting facts for you? • What do you think is the most important factor in improving results that David mentions? Why? • Do you think all sport is better than it was in the past? Why / Why not?

Watch Part 4 of the talk. Are the sentences true (T), false (F) or not stated (NS)?    3.4 1 When a person gets an electric shock, it activates their muscles. 2 We only use a small percentage of our brain power at any one time. 3 We can train our brains to accept more pain. 4 Primates are more suited to endurance than humans. 5 Kílian Jornet was the first ever person to run up the Matterhorn. 6 David does not expect Kílian’s record to be broken.

CHALLENGE Choose a sport you are interested in. Find out: • • • •

if it has changed in the ways David Epstein describes. if there have been any other changes. how the records today compare to 50 years ago. why any changes have occurred.

Unit 3  Faster, higher, stronger  41

3E  Surveys SPEAKING

Useful language Introducing main findings The most surprising / interesting thing we found was that … You won’t be surprised to hear that … but one thing that was interesting was … The main thing we discovered was … (By far) the most popular … was … Introducing other points Another thing that was interesting was … Apart from that, we found that … Some other things worth mentioning are …

1

Work in groups. The bar chart on this page shows the results of a survey into which sports people had done during the previous month. Discuss: • whether anything surprises you. If so, why? • why you think certain activities were more / less popular. • which results you would expect to be similar and different where you live.

 2

Work in pairs. Discuss which claims are supported (S) and not supported (NS) by the data in the chart. 1 2 3 4 5

  3

One fifth of those questioned used a gym in the month before the survey. Swimming and diving are the most popular sports. One in 20 of those questioned played golf in the month before the survey. Just under five percent of those questioned cycle to and from work. The popularity of certain sports may change depending on the season.

Work in pairs. You are going to carry out a survey. Choose a question or think of one that interests you. Your survey should have at least six options. • What activities have you done in your free time during the last two weeks? • What is your favourite type of film to watch at the cinema? • What subjects do you want to study at university?

What sports have you participated in during the last month?

  4

Swimming and diving

Interview as many students as you can and take notes. Discuss your notes with your partner and then present the findings to the whole class.

writING  A survey

Health and fitness

 5

Cycling (recreation) Football

Work in pairs. Read the description on page 150 of the bar chart on this page. Answer the questions. 1 What extra information is included which was not shown in the bar chart? 2 Which part of the description expresses opinion rather than fact?

Running

6

Aerobics, yoga and dance Cycling (place to place) Golf 0

5

10

15

Percentage of people Source: UK Department for Culture, Media and Sport

Beach football is a popular sport on Ipanema Beach in Rio de Janiero.

42  Unit 3  Faster, higher, stronger

We often use passive forms in reports. Complete the sentences using the past participles of the verbs in brackets. You will learn more about the passive in Unit 5. 1 The chart shows the result of a survey school last month.

(carry out) at our

2 Fifty pupils (age) 13 to 15 were (interview) about their reading habits. (see), only 20 percent of those 3 As can be (question) said they had read a novel in the previous six months. (follow) by 4 The most popular author was J.R.R. Tolkien, Anthony Horowitz. 5 We might expect a higher response if the survey were (repeat) with a younger age group. (give) for not reading was that it 6 The main reason was boring.   7

Replace the percentages in italics with these phrases. Almost half Just under three-quarters 1 2 3 4 5 6

 8

Writing strategy

WRITING SKILL  Describing statistics

A significant majority Roughly a third

A tiny percentage The vast majority

2% of those questioned spend more than an hour a day exercising. 35% of those who responded play a team sport at least once a month. 48% of those who responded prefer exercising alone. 65% of those questioned would do more sport if they had more free time. 74% of respondents do less sport now than they did five years ago. 96% of the people I spoke to recognize the importance of exercise.

Describing statistics When we are describing statistics, we sometimes use phrases or estimations ins tead of specific percentages. Instead of 10.3 percent cycled, we might say one in ten cycled. We do this for variety or to emphasize a point. For example, over half may sound bigger than 52 percent.

Work in pairs. Refer to the Writing strategy and use the passive forms in Exercise 6 to describe the statistics in this bar chart. Sports participation by gender

Male

Football

90.8 9.2

Golf

86 14

Cycling (place to place)

68.9 31.1

Cycling (recreation)

68.3 31.7

Hiking

62.7 37.3

Running

60.2 39.8

Health and fitness

51 49

Swimming / diving Aerobics / dance Yoga

Female

42.7 57.3 24.1 75.9 17.5 82.5 Source: UK Department for Culture, Media and Sport

Unit 3  Faster, higher, stronger  43

4

Cultural transformation

I N t h i s u ni t Y O U •  d iscuss how art and cultural events can benefit people and places •  r ead about an innovative programme for teaching music •  learn about a Spanish city that was transformed by art and architecture •  w atch a TED Talk about how a park was created on an old railway line •  write a for and against essay

44 

4A  Putting the town on the map Vocabulary  Cultural events 1

Work in groups. Look at these cultural attractions and discuss the questions. art gallery / museum cinema food festival public art

arts / music festival comedy club music venue theatre

• Which of these cultural attractions do you have near where you live? • Do you go to any of them? Why? / Why not? • Would you like to have any of them near where you live? Why? / Why not?  2

Complete the summary by putting the words in bold in the correct order. The Rio Carnival, one of the world’s leading festivals, (1) every held is February in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During the festival, organizers (2) huge put on a of parades number and parties all over the city, which (3) million tourists almost a attract. The festival (4) on impact has a the city big and on people’s cultural lives. The carnival involves around 200 Samba schools which compete to have the best costumes, dance routines and musical bands. It (5) million over income $750 in generates locally in Rio which comes from tourists who (6) four-day attend event the and the Samba schools, which can sometimes spend over three million dollars on costumes and preparations. The festival also (7) Brazil’s economy boosts broader. But it’s not just about money. There’s (8) wide for support festival the because (9) it together people brings and helps (10) create a of pride sense in the country. Many of the Samba schools are from the poorest neighbourhoods in the city, and the festival (11) opportunities to offers young people part take in cultural activities and learn new skills. In many ways, the festival has (12) put map on the Rio as a world city and cultural hotspot.

Members of the Vila Isabel Samba School perform in a parade during the Rio Carnival.

  3

Listen to the summary. Check your answers in Exercise 2. 

  15

 4

Complete the sentences with six different cultural attractions you know of. Then work in pairs and share your ideas. is held every year. 1 attracts a lot of tourists to our area. 2 has had a big impact on our country. 3 brings people together. 4 has very wide support. 5 . 6 I’d like to get involved in

 5

Work as a class. Use the words and phrases in bold in Exercise 2 to talk about the places and events you thought of in Exercise 1. We’ve got a music venue near where we live. The promoters put on a lot of small concerts and parties.

6

MY PERSPECTIVE What other benefits can you think of that are related to cultural attractions and events? Think about the benefits to you personally, your town and your country.

Unit 4  Cultural transformation  45

LISTENING   7

Work in groups. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. • • • •

8

Where do you think the photo was taken? What has been done to the building? Why? Do you like it? Why? / Why not? Have you ever seen anything similar? Where?

grammar  Future forms 1  11

Future forms a And in Haiti, the project is certainly going to create jobs, and it’ll be employing local artists. b I guess that work won’t last, but I think the locals are hoping the project will attract interest in the area.

Listen to a podcast about two big art projects aiming to make a difference. What are the plans for these places?    16

c The piece should be low maintenance, so they won’t be spending thousands of pounds every year to keep it in good condition.

1 Port-au-Prince, Haiti 2 Birmingham, UK  9

d What about once it’s been completed?

Work in pairs. Do the speakers mention these points in reference to Port-au-Prince (P), Birmingham (B) or both (PB)? Listen again and check your answers.    16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The project is based on previous work. The project has an aim to improve the local economy. The project is initially expensive. Local people are involved in creating the work of art. Other things are being built as well. It will bring people together. It may be difficult to keep the art in good condition over time. 8 There might be an alternative that costs less.  10

MY PERSPECTIVE

Think about your community. What would you choose if you had to decide between the two public art projects and Mark’s suggestion of putting on a local festival? Why?

With the help of Haas and Hahn, members of a Caribbean community came together to transform a part of their neighbourhood.

46  Unit 4  Cultural transformation

Look at the Grammar box. Why do you think the forms in bold are used in each sentence?

e What’ll happen when the paint fades? f We’re about to put on a community arts festival. g We’re holding various shows and events over a week. h You can continue the discussion on the Arts Spot website and get information on Mark’s festival which starts on the 24th.  12

Match each explanation of how to create future forms with an extract in the Grammar box. There are two extracts for one of the explanations. 1 The present simple is used to refer to a scheduled or regular event. 2 The present simple or present perfect is used because it follows a time word. 3 The present continuous is used because they are talking about an arrangement they have made with other people. 4 Will + infinitive is used because they are making predictions about the future they are certain about.

5 The future continuous is used because they are talking about an ongoing / unfinished future action. 6 Be about to + verb is used to talk about something which is going to happen in the very near future but has not started yet. 7 Be going to + verb is used because they are making a prediction. Going to can also be used to talk about arrangements and scheduled events. Check your answers on page 134. Do Exercises 1 and 2.  13

5 Next term, 6 In five years’ time,

How many times can you complete the sentences so that they are correct and true? Compare with a partner and see who got the most. 1 I’m 2 I’m going to

in our town. , so I can . . .

 15

Work in pairs. Make a list of at least four ideas for pieces of art / cultural events / festivals for your community.

 16

Work with another pair of students. Compare the ideas you came up with in Exercise 15. Discuss which you think would:

Choose the correct options to complete the paragraph. Our town (1) holds / is going to hold a festival next year for the total solar eclipse. There (2) will be being / are going to be some small events in the week before the eclipse (3) takes / is taking place – like talks and music. And then on the actual day, the eclipse is due quite early in the morning, so we (4) are about to put on / are putting on a concert with some local bands as the sun (5) rises / will rise. After the concert (6) has finished / will finish, we’re going to have a huge breakfast barbecue to prepare for the big event. It should be great! A lot of people (7) will be coming to / come to the area next year to catch the eclipse so we (8) will hopefully get / are hopefully getting a few visitors here in our town too, although that’s not the main thing about putting on the event. We’re really doing it because we want to bring people together, and it’s not like we (9) will be spending / spend thousands of dollars on it. If (10) it’s going to be / it will be a success, we’ll need lots of volunteers.

 14

3 There’s about to be 4 I will be

• • • • •  17

Work in the same groups. Choose one of your ideas. Discuss more about the details of the project. Use future forms. Think about: • • • • • • • • •

 18

be the most fun. be best at bringing the whole community together. do most to boost the local economy. have the longest lasting impact. be the most difficult to organize.

the venue. how long it will take to set up and how long it will last. who will take part. who will organize it (professionals / volunteers). how much it will cost. how you will raise the money. any permission you will need. how to get people to support the project. anything else you think might be important.

Present your ideas to the class. Vote on which one you like best.

next weekend. after .

Unit 4  Cultural transformation  47

4B  Music to their ears

Gustavo Dudamel is the musical director of the Venezuelan Youth Orchestra.

A System that’s

Leading the Way

vocabulary building  Adjective and noun collocations 2 It is a good idea to notice and learn adjective-noun collocations. When you learn them, consider how they might be used. Think about: • what verbs or phrases go with the collocation. give an individual performance / get a mark for your individual performance • examples from real life. We have to work in groups, but we get a mark for our individual performance. 1

Work in pairs. Look at these adjective-noun collocations. Take turns explaining what each one means. Use a dictionary if necessary. diverse social backgrounds hard work leading orchestra mixed results straightforward process

48  Unit 4  Cultural transformation

driving ambition innovative scheme low income private companies strict set of rules

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Work in pairs. Put the collocations in Exercise 1 in pairs and say how they might be linked together. driving ambition / private companies To get to the top of a private company, you need driving ambition.

Reading   3

Read about El Sistema, a programme for teaching music. Put the sentences (a–g) in the correct places (1–6) in the article. There is one extra sentence that you do not need to use. a It has also been credited with improving relations between different communities and saving many children from getting involved in gangs and violence. b Obviously, the resources that the Venezuelan government puts into El Sistema are important. c Central to El Sistema is a focus on discipline and commitment. d Abreu was also a politician and a minister in the government. e However, it seems there are always individuals whose lives are changed.

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  17   Jose Antonio Abreu trained and worked as an economist for many years, but his dream was to have a life in music. He fulfilled that dream, firstly through individual performance, but more importantly through founding El Sistema. El Sistema is an innovative scheme for teaching music to children from diverse social backgrounds. It has been so successful that an orchestra which is part of the scheme – the Venezuelan National Youth Orchestra – has been named among the five . leading orchestras in the world. (1) When he first started the orchestra, Abreu had managed to get 50 music stands for the 100 children he was expecting to come and rehearse. In the end, only 11 turned up. What was he going to do? Give up or try and attract many more children to fill those spaces? In fact, he went several steps further and promised those 11 students that he would turn the orchestra into a world leader! So apart from this driving ambition, how did it happen? . It pays for instruments and teaching for (2) over 500,000 young musicians who are involved in the programme and also provides monthly grants to older pupils as a reward for their hard work. It also pays for performances and teaching younger children in the programme. Private companies often sponsor local groups and parents also raise funds for tours.

f Yet, 40 years ago, such an idea seemed a long way off. g Lessons are mainly conducted as a group, with all the class working towards performing a piece in front of an audience.   4

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While discipline is important, the musical training also emphasizes fun, team spirit, physical expression and the value of performance. Students start in a choir and work on rhythm and percussion before moving on to playing the recorder and then finally choosing their instrument at . the age of seven. (4)

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El Sistema is seen by many people from low-income families as a way to stay in education and escape poverty. It can present opportunities to travel via tours within . No wonder many Venezuela and abroad. (5) other countries have looked to copy the programme.

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Setting up a ‘sistema’ is not a straightforward process . and there have been mixed results. (6) As one parent from the Scottish Sistema put it, ‘My son was struggling, and I was worried he was going to go off school and maybe end up getting in with the wrong kids. El Sistema has made a huge difference. He’s gained confidence, learnt discipline and he’s definitely back on track.’

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CRITICal thinking  Understanding and evaluating ideas If you want to copy a successful idea or make use of what you have learnt in a new context, you need to understand all the factors that made the idea a success and evaluate how far they can be applied in a new context.    7

Work in groups. Discuss the different factors you read about that help make El Sistema a success.

8

Work as a class. Discuss the questions.

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Have you ever learnt how to play a musical instrument? How good were / are you? • If you gave up playing a musical instrument, why? • If you still play a musical instrument, how much do you practise? Do you ever perform? • What kind of music do you listen to? What do you like about it?

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Read about El Sistema again. Answer the questions. 1 How many children went to Abreu’s first rehearsal? How many take part now? 2 How old are children when they choose a musical instrument? 3 How much do they practise? 4 Why do other countries like El Sistema?

However, money is not the only factor in its success. . New students can start from as young as (3) three, but students and their parents must agree to a strict set of rules and attend classes and rehearsals for between one and four hours a day, up to six days a week. Teachers may visit parents to help them understand the hours required to improve and how to support their children.

Work in pairs. Look at the adjective-noun collocations in Exercise 1 again. Tell each other what was said about them in the article. Check your answers.

• Are all the factors you discussed in Exercise 7 possible in your country? Why? / Why not? • Are there any factors that you think are not necessary? Why? / Why not? • Would El Sistema work in your country? Why? / Why not?   9

MY PERSPECTIVE Would you like to take part in a programme like El Sistema? Why? / Why not?

Unit 4  Cultural transformation  49

The Guggenheim Museum contributed to the ‘Bilbao Effect’.

4C  High hopes grammar  Future forms 2 1

Look at the Grammar box. Then look at the sentences (1–3) in each set. Which sentence in each set does not show the future in the past? a was / were going to 1 Before the election, the mayor said he was going to make entry to all museums and galleries free. 2 I was going to enter a painting competition but didn’t finish in time. 3 I fell asleep in the car when we were going to the gallery. b would 1 I would really like to go to the Edinburgh Festival next year. 2 The government built the museum because it thought it would bring a lot of investment into the city. 3 If we did more cultural activities here, I’m sure we would attract more tourists. c was / were + present participle 1 The show was starting in a matter of minutes, so we had to rush. 2 I couldn’t hear the film because the people behind me were talking. 3 I only bought two tickets because I thought your brother wasn’t coming. The future in the past a My son was struggling, and I was worried he was going to go off school and maybe end up getting in with the wrong kids. b He went several steps further and promised those 11 students that he would turn the orchestra into a world leader! c Abreu had managed to get 50 music stands for the 100 children he thought were coming to rehearse.

Check your answers on page 134. Do Exercises 3 and 4.  2

Complete the first parts of the sentences using was / were going to and these verbs. Then match them with the second parts of the sentences. be cost get hold play rain 1 2 3 4 5 6

They said the building something like $35 million, a bit, The forecast did say it tickets for the concert next month, We on stage around nine, They told us the band all their hits, I thought they the World Cup here, When they announced they

a but they just played loads of new stuff. They were absolutely terrible. b but it literally sold out in seconds. I couldn’t believe it. c loads of people were actually against it. d but it cost way more than that. e but we had to wait for hours. It must’ve been midnight before they came on. f but seriously, it just poured down all day.  3

PRONUNCIATION  Contrastive stress a Listen to how we stress the quantity words in the second parts of the sentences in Exercise 2 to emphasize the contrast with our previous plans or predictions.    18 b Practise saying the complete sentences from Exercise 2.

50  Unit 4  Cultural transformation

 4

Read about the Bilbao Effect. What is it? Which of the italicized parts are grammatically incorrect? Correct them. By the 1990s, the city of Bilbao in northern Spain was no longer the industrial centre it once was and the future (1) was looking bleak. It was hard to see how new jobs (2) was going to be created or what could be done to ensure things (3) improve. Local authorities decided to invest over $1 billion in the hope that a new focus on culture (4) would attract visitors. The money (5) was going to be spent on transport links, bridges, parks, libraries and the remarkable Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Gehry. Once people saw what the building (6) was looking like, excitement grew. When it opened, the authorities (7) were expecting around 300,000 visitors in the first year, but by the end of that year, it had attracted a million! The impact on the city has been even more dramatic than people hoped it (8) was, so it’s no wonder other cities are now desperate to copy what has become known as the ‘Bilbao Effect’!

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1 What is the form of the future perfect simple? What is the form of the future perfect continuous? 2 Which form do we use to emphasize the duration of an activity before a certain point in the future? 3 Which form do we use to emphasize completed actions by a certain point? 4 Which word shows a point in the future? The future perfect We use the future perfect to show the time in the future by which something will be complete. It’ll soon have been running for 70 years, and over 10 million people will have seen it. Check your answers on page 134. Do Exercise 5.  9

MY PERSPECTIVE

Listen to three people describing cultural events they went to. Answer the questions.    19

Think of places or cultural events you have been to that you could describe using this language. Plan what you want to say. Then share your experiences in groups. It was far / much / way … than I thought it would be. I wasn’t expecting it to be very …, but it was actually totally … It was nowhere near as good as I was expecting. I was expecting it to be quite …, but it was actually very …

Complete each sentence with the future perfect simple or future perfect continuous form of the verb. 1 By the end of next year, the band (play) together for 30 years! (study) 2 By the end of this course, I English for ten whole years! 3 I can’t talk now. I’ll call you after five. I (finish) school by then. 4 He’s originally from Peru, but by June he (live) in Canada for ten years. soon 5 The Museum of Modern Art (be) open for a whole century.

Think of three possible reasons why the ‘Bilbao Effect’ might not work in another city.

1 What event did each person go to? 2 How did they feel about it? Why?    7

Work in pairs. Look at the Grammar box. Answer the questions.

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CHOOSE 1 Write a short story about an unexpected success. 2 Find out about a new development in your town or country. Why was it built? Has it been a success? 3 Write a list of ten things that will have happened in your life by the time you are 30. Then work in pairs. Which are the most / least likely to come true?

The Zubizuri (Basque for ‘white bridge’) stretches across the Nervión River in Bilbao.

Unit 4  Cultural transformation  51

4D Building a park in the sky

… that’s the power that public space can have to transform how people experience their city and interact with each other.

ROBERT HAMMOND

Read about Robert Hammond and get ready to watch his TED Talk.

• Do you know any old buildings or places that used to be used for one purpose but are now used for a different purpose? Have the changes been for the better or the worse? • What’s your favourite public space? Why? How often do you go there? What for?

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS Recognizing words you know Sometimes you may not recognize words in fast speech because you expect to hear the full form. For example, in a dictionary with is shown as /wIθ/, but in fast speech it may sound more like /wI/. 1

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1 In the old days, the freight line trains a used cowboys to protect the goods they were carrying. b were pulled by horses. c caused several fatal accidents. 2 As time went by, a more freight started being transported by road. b the line was mainly used to transport meat. c people in the neighbourhood wanted it demolished. 3 At the community board meeting, Robert a offered to volunteer to help preserve the High Line. b realized he was in a small minority. c knew a writer from the New York Times.

Listen to the extracts again. Which of the missing words in each sentence were the most difficult to 20 hear?

4 The main inspiration for the project came from a the spectacular views of Manhattan. b the industrial architecture of the line. c the way nature had started reclaiming the abandoned space.

Say each sentence twice – slowly the first time, with a gap between each word – then faster, linking the words in each part of the sentences together. 6

WATCH 4

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Where you live, are there any old buildings, industrial places or pieces of land that are no longer used? Do you know when or why they stopped being used?

52 Unit 4 Cultural transformation

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Choose the correct options. 4.1

Look at the Authentic listening skills box. Then listen 20 and complete the extracts from the TED talk. 1 And by 1980, the last train rode. It was a train . 2 I first read about it in the New York Times, in an article demolished. we were the only two 3 And people that were sort of interested in the project. 4 And that’s really where we started … the idea coalesced around … let’s make this a park, and this wildscape.

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Watch Part 2 of the talk. Why were the following 4.2 mentioned? 1 2 3 4 5

9/11 100 million 20 years and 250 million half a billion three

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Work in groups. Robert Hammond explains that a special study was designed to show whether the High Line would add value to the city. Discuss: • how the creation of a park on the High Line might add value to the local area. • how demolishing the High Line might add value to the area. • who you think would benefit most in each case – and which plan of action is better.

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Watch Part 3 of the talk. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?    4.3 1 Twice as many people as expected used the High Line last year. 2 Architects have taken inspiration from the High Line. 3 Some parts of the High Line have been elevated to a higher level. 4 Robert Hammond admits that he doesn’t really love the design. 5 He believes the space encourages people to behave in ways they wouldn’t normally.

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Vocabulary in Context a Watch the clips from the TED Talk. Choose the correct meanings of the words and phrases.    4.4 b Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 What different ways of reducing the number of people who get run over can you think of? 2 What problems might arise if ancient relics are found in a construction area? 3 Who do you usually talk to if you need to figure out what to do about a problem? Why?

4 Which of these ideas do you think your town / city would really get behind? Why? • Free art gallery and museum entrance for everyone • Spending more money on public art • Official areas for young people to put up street art • Free art materials for all schoolchildren • Displaying work by local poets on public transport CHALLENGE Work in pairs. Make a list of all the activities you think Friends of the High Line had to do at each stage to transform the abandoned rail line into a park. Think about: • events and meetings. • money. • people. • the law. Work with another pair of students. Then use some of the phrases below to discuss: • what personal qualities are needed to help change a neighbourhood in this way. • which of these qualities you think you have. • how you could develop these kinds of qualities and skills further. I think you’d need to be very … if you were going to … You’d have to be a very … kind of person if you wanted to … I’d like to think I’m fairly … I’d be lying if I said I was … The best way to get better at … would be to …

Unit 4  Cultural transformation  53

4E  What’s the plan? SPEAKING Useful language

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Making suggestions Do you feel like going to …? I was wondering if you’d like to go to …?

1 I usually go out to meet friends four or five times a week / two or three times a week / maybe once a week – at the weekend. 2 I hardly ever / sometimes / quite often go out with my parents. 3 I prefer going out on my own / with one or two close friends / with a big group. 4 When it comes to deciding where and when to meet, I let other people decide / we generally try to reach a group decision / I basically like to take charge. 5 I mostly like going to the same place / different kinds of places. 6 When I go out with friends, I like to plan everything in advance / I’m happy to just go with the flow and see what happens. 7 I often / rarely / never go to cultural events like concerts, exhibitions and plays.

Rejecting suggestions To be honest, it’s not really my kind of thing. Doesn’t really sound like my kind of thing, I’m afraid. Suggesting alternatives OK. Well, in that case, how about going to …? OK. Well, if you’d rather, we could always go to …

Choose the options that are true for you. Then work in pairs and explain your choices.

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Listen to two friends making plans. Answer the questions.  1 2 3 4

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What different cultural events do they mention? What do they decide to do in the end? Why are the other ideas rejected? Where and when do they arrange to meet? Why?

Listen to the two friends again. Complete the sentences by adding two or three words in each gap.    21 1 I was wondering. Do you somewhere with me tomorrow? ? Anywhere in particular? 2 Where did you have is it? I’m not really into art, so … 3 OK. What . 4 It doesn’t sound like my kind of thing, this band that are playing in the park 5 How about tomorrow night? that? 6 What about just going to see a film? Would you be the later one – but meet a little bit earlier. 7 Let’s – just to . 8 I’ll book tickets

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Some festivals and events that attract a lot of people like this colour run sometimes require a large clean-up operation.

54  Unit 4  Cultural transformation

Work in pairs. Arrange to go to a cultural event. Make sure you: • • • •

use real places / events that are local to you. reject at least one suggestion and explain why. arrange where and when to meet. use language from Exercise 3 and the Useful language box.

Writing  A for and against essay   5

Work in pairs. Look at this essay title. Think of two reasons why you might agree with the statement in the title, and two reasons why you might disagree. Building a new museum would boost tourism in the area and benefit the whole community

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Read the essay on page 150. Does the writer agree with the statement in the essay title? Why? / Why not?

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writing skill  Introducing arguments

Work in pairs. Look at the essay on page 150 again. Use the Writing strategy box to identify each of the three stages of the introduction. Answer the questions. 1 How does the writer stress the importance of the subject? 2 What phrase is used to introduce an opposing argument / point of view? 3 How does the writer signal a disagreement?

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Complete the sentences, which give a weak argument, with these words. believed   claimed   common   seen   sometimes   supposedly 1 It is said that art is a mirror of society. In fact, … belongs to the world of the arts. In reality, 2 Creativity though, … that music can help to connect young 3 It is widely people from different backgrounds. However, … that comedy works best when it’s cruel. 4 It is often However, … as being of no interest to 5 Museums are sometimes young people. However, … argument against more focus on arts subjects 6 One in schools is that they do not make students more employable. In reality, …

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Work in pairs. Complete the second sentences in Exercise 8 to show how each of the arguments could be seen as weak.

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Choose one of the options and write a for and against essay of 250 words.

Writing strategy Opening paragraph When we write the opening paragraph of a for and against essay, we usually: • show the reader we know why the subject is relevant now. • give what we feel is a weak argument / point of view. • say why we disagree and give our own opinion. Useful language Showing relevance Over recent years, … has become increasingly important. … is getting better and better / worse and worse at the moment. Over the last few years, there has been a dramatic increase / drop in … Introduce an opposing view It is sometimes said that … It is often claimed that … Say why we disagree … but, in fact, … In reality, though, … However, …

a Argue the opposite point of view to the student essay you read on page 150. b Write an essay on one of these titles: What our city needs is a big new concert hall We should not host a festival because the clean-up is too expensive New technologies have had a very negative effect on our cultural lives

Unit 4  Cultural transformation  55

 5

It’s not rocket science

I N t h i s u ni t Y O U •  learn about and discuss different life hacks •  r ead about why humans are curious •  learn about brain research •  w atch a TED Talk about science being for everyone •  d esign and write about an experiment 56 

5A  Life hacks Vocabulary  Science in action 1

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. • • • •

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In what ways has science made life easier or better in your lifetime? Can you think of two mysteries science has yet to solve? Which scientists have you heard of? Why are they famous? What personal qualities are most important if you want to be a scientist? Why?

Work in pairs. Check you understand the words in bold. Use a dictionary if necessary.   1 design an experiment   2 carry out research   3 form a hypothesis and prove it   4 put a substance in water and heat it up to help it dissolve   5 create a chemical reaction that releases a gas   6 track students’ progress   7 record the results of an experiment and analyze them   8 write a report and add references at the end   9 place something under a microscope 10 reward hard work 11 get rid of a chemical 12 submit an assignment

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Work in pairs. Discuss whether the actions in Exercise 2 happen in your science classes at school. Who does each activity? Give examples. We don’t really design experiments at school. We just follow the ones in the textbook or do what the teacher tells us to do.

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Complete the phrases. Add verbs from Exercise 2 that are commonly used with each set of words. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

… a theory / … an opinion … samples / … the results … an operation / … a survey … chemicals into the atmosphere / … an animal … an essay / … it before the deadline … their effort / … her for her work … the movement of birds / … your progress

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Work in pairs. Compare your answers in Exercise 4. Then think of one more word or phrase to go with each verb. Use a dictionary if necessary.

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Look again at your completed phrases in Exercise 4. Who might perform each action? Why?

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MY PERSPECTIVE

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. • What science experiments have you done at school that you enjoyed? • Have you ever designed an experiment yourself? If yes, what for? If no, why not? What experiment would you like to design?

Taylor Wilson is the youngest person ever to produce a type of energy called nuclear fusion. He did it by building a reactor in his parents’ garage. Unit 5  It’s not rocket science  57

LISTENING  8

2 And of course it works better as an alarm if the cup far away from your bed, as then to get up to turn it off. 3 The cup channels the sound in one direction, whereas around all over the place. normally to track your sleep patterns and 4 wake you up during light sleep rather than deep. and you need it done 5 If your ASAP, then what you need to do is put it in Airplane mode. to me by Maxine, 6 An email has who’s suggested a hack for anyone out there who likes a spicy curry from time to time.

Work in pairs. Read the definition. Then tell each other any life hacks you know for: 1 smartphones. 2 computers / computer games.

3  the home. 4  food and drink.

Life hack /laɪf hæk/  noun [countable] A simple solution or a piece of advice that helps you solve a problem, save time or improve how something works.  9

Listen to an extract from a radio programme called Life Hacks. Answer the questions.    22 1 What four life hacks are mentioned? 2 What problems do the life hacks help solve?

 10 Correct the false information in each sentence.

Then listen again to check your ideas. 

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Marie bought herself a phone for her birthday. Marie’s a morning person. It’s best to put the paper cup right next to your bed. The cup throws the sound around the room. The app alters your sleep patterns. Phones can be charged faster on aeroplanes. When you eat spicy food, the temperature in your mouth rises. 8 The chemical in chillies is easily dissolved with water.  11

Complete the extracts with three words in each gap (contractions like it’s count as one word). Then listen again to check your ideas.     22 1 Well, I smartphone.

58  Unit 5  It’s not rocket science

this lovely new

 12 MY PERSPECTIVE

Decide which of the four life hacks you think is: • the most / the least useful. Why? • the easiest / the hardest to understand from a scientific point of view. Why?

grammar  The passive 1  13 Work in groups. Look at the Grammar box.

Then discuss the questions.

1 What tense are each of the passive forms in Exercise 11? 2 Why is the passive used in each case? 3 Identify the object(s) in the sentences in the Grammar box. Are the objects direct or indirect? What do they refer to?

The passive We make the passive by using a form of the verb be + past participle. a I was recently given this lovely new smartphone. b An email has just been sent to me by Maxine. Check your answers on page 136. Do Exercises 1 and 2.  14

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Complete the blog entry with the correct passive forms. If you’re making a list of the most important inventions (place) ever, the internet should (1) right at the top! Our lives (2) (transform) since the completely (create) in 1990. first web page (3) (say) that the It could even (4) internet is the ultimate life hack! Of course, various linked (use) for systems of computers (5) some time before the birth of the world wide web, and early versions of what was to become the web regularly (6) (test) right through the 1970s and 80s. Today, though, it’s rare to meet someone who has no interest in (connect) and for many (7) young people, that means more than 20 hours a week online! Indeed, the internet has become so essential to our lives that some argue it is like air and everyone should (give) access to it for free. (8) PRONUNCIATION  Stress in the passive

When using the passive, greater stress is placed on the main verb and less stress is placed on the auxiliary verb.

a Look at the completed blog entry in Exercise 14. Which word is stressed in each passive construction? b Work in pairs. Practise reading the blog entry in Exercise 14 with the correct stress.  16 Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

• Do you agree that the internet is the most important invention ever? Why? / Why not? • What other inventions would you put near the top of the list? Why?  17 Underline the passives in the descriptions. Can you

name the things described?

1 The name is taken from Tagalog, a language that’s spoken in the Philippines, where it was used as a weapon for hundreds of years. It was first produced as a toy in California in the 1920s. 2 It is thought that it was first produced in Mocha, Yemen, over a thousand years ago. It’s now consumed all over the world – particularly in the morning. 3 It was first invented in Ancient China over 2,000 years ago for use in government but wasn’t introduced into Europe until the 11th century. 4 You’ve probably been asked to type letters into one of these when using the web. They’re used to prevent spam and were invented by TED speaker Luis Von Ahn from Guatemala.  18 Work in pairs. Write a description of something like in

Exercise 17. Use the passive. Then work with another pair of students. Can they correctly guess what is being described?

People have created more original ways to use cups as loudspeakers.

Unit 5  It’s not rocket science  59

5B  Curiosity, cats and kids vocabulary building  Adjective endings

d We run the risk of becoming less curious if we’re not careful. e Curiosity can do more harm than good. 6

Adjectives can sometimes be recognized by their endings. Common adjective endings include: -ous: curious, tremendous, previous -able: reliable, treatable, adaptable -ive: effective, innovative, imaginative -ful: beautiful, hopeful, helpful -al: practical, electrical, social 1

Work in pairs. Think of a noun that each adjective in the Vocabulary building box often goes with. Use a dictionary if necessary.

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Choose four pairs of words from Exercise 1. Write a sentence for each pair. Research by scientists needs to have practical applications.

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1 Parents should make sure kids don’t experiment too much. 2 You can’t create anything new unless you recognize the limits of your understanding. 3 The people funding scientific research should demand clear outcomes. 4 Humans are basically programmed to ask why. 5 We ask better questions about machines that are difficult to understand. 6 You don’t get a full picture of someone from the way people present themselves online. 7 We need to share ideas with like-minded people if we are to develop our curiosity.  7

Choose the correct options to complete the paragraph. It is often thought that (1) innovation / innovative in science comes from the labour of (2) curiosity / curious geniuses: the kinds of individuals who work in isolation, find (3) pleasure / pleasurable in exploration and who don’t worry too much about the (4) practicality / practical applications of their findings. While it is true that the (5) use / useful of many new discoveries is not always immediately clear, you only have to look at the results of scientific work conducted by teams to see that it is a (6) social / society process and involves far more (7) cooperation / cooperative than is often imagined. (8) Collaborative / Collaboration can not only help to speed up scientific work; it can also enhance the quality of the work and help share knowledge amongst a wider group of individuals. MY PERSPECTIVE Work in pairs. Answer the questions. • What are the advantages and disadvantages for scientists / researchers working on their own, as part of a small team and in a much bigger team? • How do you prefer to work? Why?

If we want to check ideas and deepen our understanding, it is important to begin by asking questions about statements or research. For example: Research has shown that curiosity is just as important as intelligence in determining how well students do at school. The starting points for thinking critically about this statement might be: How is student success measured? In what subjects? How are curiosity and intelligence measured? And how different are they? Can you be very intelligent without being curious and vice versa? Can you be successful at school without one of these characteristics? Is curiosity important for doing well in a job? What kinds of jobs?  8

60  Unit 5  It’s not rocket science

Work in pairs. Think of at least two questions you would ask if you wanted to think critically about each of these statements. • Hard work is more important for success than either curiosity or intelligence. • There is some evidence that bees can think like humans. • It has been shown that you can only learn seven words in a language lesson.

Read the article about curiosity. Which sentence is the best summary of the main point? a Technology can help us become more curious, but it can also kill our curiosity. b It’s more important than ever to make sure kids learn to be curious. c Social media doesn’t really help us get to know people better.

Work in groups. Discuss how far you agree with the statements in Exercise 6. Explain why.

CRITICal thinking  Asking critical questions

Reading  5

Work in pairs. Which statements do you think the writer would be likely to agree and disagree with? Refer to the article to explain why.

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Work with another pair of students. Compare your ideas in Exercise 8. How many of the questions can you already answer? What is the best question to explore each statement?

Curious explorers make their way through Rising Star Cave in South Africa.

Curiosity allows us to embrace unfamiliar circumstances, brings excitement into our lives and opens up new possibilities. But how curious are we in the 21st century?

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  23   Perhaps you’ve heard the old saying that claims ‘curiosity killed the cat’. It’s a phrase that’s often used to warn people – especially children – not to ask too many questions. Yet it’s widely agreed that curiosity actually makes learning more enjoyable and effective. Indeed, research has shown that curiosity is just as important as intelligence in determining how well students do at school. Curiosity also allows us to embrace unfamiliar circumstances, brings excitement into our lives and opens up new possibilities. Being curious requires us to be both humble enough to know we don’t have all the answers, and confident enough to admit it. Asking the questions that help us bridge the gap between what we already know and what we’d like to know can lead us to make unexpected discoveries. In science, basic curiosity-driven research – carried out without pressure to produce immediate practical results – can have unexpected and incredibly important benefits. For example, one day in 1831, Michael Faraday was playing around with a coil and a magnet when he suddenly saw how he could generate an electrical current. At first, it wasn’t clear what use this would be, but it actually made electricity available for use in technology, and so changed the world. Unsurprisingly, there are chemical and evolutionary theories to explain why humans are such curious creatures. When we become curious, our brains release a chemical called dopamine, which makes the process of learning more pleasurable and improves memory. It is still not known why learning gives us such pleasure, but one theory is that we

may have developed a basic need to fight uncertainty – the more we understand about the world around us, the more likely we are to survive its many dangers! 35

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However, curiosity is currently under threat like never before – and perhaps the biggest threat comes from technology! On one level, this is because technology has become so sophisticated that many of us are unable to think too deeply about how exactly things work anymore. While it may be possible for a curious teenager to take a toaster apart and get some sense of how it works, how far do you understand what happens when you type a website address into a browser? Where does your grasp of technology end and the magic begin for you? In addition to this, there’s the fact that we all now connect so deeply with technology, particularly our phones. The more we stare at our screens, the less we talk to other people directly. To make matters worse, all too often we accept the images of people that social media provides us with, and then feel we know enough about a person not to need to engage further with them. The final – and perhaps most worrying – way in which technology stops us asking more is to do with algorithms, the processes followed by computers. As we increasingly get our news via social media, algorithms find out what we like and push more of the same back to us, meaning we end up inside our own little bubbles, and no longer meet ideas that challenge our pre-existing beliefs. Perhaps the real key to developing curiosity in the 21st century, then, is to rely less on the tech tools of our age.

Unit 5  It’s not rocket science  61

5C  Mind-blowing! grammar  The passive 2 1

Work in groups. Look at the Grammar box. Discuss whether you believe the sentences are true. Explain why by using these phrases. I’m absolutely sure. I’m not sure but, at a guess, I’d say … I read about it recently. / We did it in class. I seem to remember hearing about it. I’ve got a feeling it’s a bit of a myth / it’s a trick question. Passive reporting verbs a T he heart was believed to be the centre of intelligence until the Middle Ages. b It is claimed that computer training programmes can limit the effects of ageing on the brain. c Einstein’s brain was said to be bigger than average, which explains his intelligence. d It is estimated that the human brain is about 75 percent water. e It is well known that most of the time we only use ten percent of our brain capacity. f Doing exercise is thought to create chemicals that reduce your ability to think. g The part of the brain called the hippocampus is known to be connected with our sense of direction. h It has been generally accepted that creative people have a dominant right brain.

  2

Listen and find out which sentences in the Grammar box are true. How many did you get right?    24

  3

Work in pairs. Look at the Grammar box again and: 1 identify the whole passive reporting pattern in the sentences that begin with It. 2 identify the form of the verb that follows the passive forms in sentences that do not begin with It. 3 discuss what you notice about the different patterns.

Check your answers on page 136. Do Exercise 3. 4

Write sentences about the brain using these notes and the passive. 1 The brain / estimate / contain … around 12 percent fat. The brain is estimated to contain around 12 percent fat. 2 It / once / think / the brain / become … fully mature by the time children were six. 3 The brain / now / know / develop … most during the teenage years. 4 It / once / believe / the brain’s networks / become … fixed as we aged. 5 Brain training activities / claim / improve … listening skills and memory. 6 It / sometimes / say / brain size / affect … intelligence. 7 It / still / not really know … why we dream while we sleep. 8 Brain transplants / generally accept / be … impossible.

 5

62  Unit 5  It’s not rocket science

Work as a class. Discuss how you think research into the brain is carried out.

6

Choose the correct options to complete the article about brain research. Does the article cover the ideas you thought of in Exercise 5?

  7

• In the first sentence, is the object of the verb do. • In the second sentence, research becomes the of the passive structure can be done. • In the third sentence, we use the structure get + so we can make something + the person affected by an action (scientists) the subject of the sentence.

Our understanding of the brain has changed with developments in science, surgery and medical technology. For example, as new technologies were invented, the brain was thought (1) to be / that it is like a mechanical watch or telephone communication and, more recently, it (2) has been described / describes as a computer. After Galen proved that the brain was the centre of intelligence, it was generally assumed that different parts of the brain (3) to control / controlled certain senses and functions of the body. However, the brain could only really (4) understand / be understood from the outside by studying animal brains and dissecting human bodies. Knowledge increased as a result of surgery where a patient had a tumour removed from their brain and the resulting physical change meant functions could be mapped to the part of the brain that had been operated on. This mapping came about as much through failed operations as successful ones. Now operations (5) sometimes carry out / are sometimes carried out while the patient is awake and talking, so if a part of the brain (6) touched / is touched and it affects one of their senses, they can tell the surgeon! Since the late 1970s, medical technology such as MRI scanning (7) has allowed / has been allowed safe research into the brain without the need for surgery or X-rays. MRI uses powerful magnets and computer imaging to see high blood flows in different parts of the brain that (8) believe / are believed to show brain activity. If people (9) have / is their brains scanned while doing various thinking activities, researchers think they can (10) identify/ be identified more accurately how the brain works. One result of this research is to show the limits of the braincomputer comparison. For example, it is now understood that memories are not stored in one place but are the result of activity in many parts of the brain. Causative have and get a Scientists can do research into the brain by using scanners. b Research into the brain can be done (by scientists) by using scanners. c Scientists can get research into the brain done by using scanners.

Look at the Grammar box. Then complete the explanation.

Check your answers on page 136. Do Exercises 4 and 5.  8

Write normal sentences in the passive based on these sentences. 1 2 3 4 5

  9

They had their brains scanned while they were singing. The hospital is having a new MRI scanner installed. The scientists had their research evaluated. I’m going to have my examination later. My dad had his head looked at when he was in the hospital.

Work in pairs. Complete the sentences in as many different ways as you can. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 2 3 4

The patient had scanned. examined. I had tested. They should have The scientists are having the laboratory . . 5 I’m going to have my injury 6 The research centre is going to have .

 10 CHOOSE

1 Write a set of sentences like the ones in the first Grammar box. Share your facts. 2 Discuss ways in which the brain could be compared to: •  a city. •  a computer. •  an orchestra. •  a spider’s web. 3 Write about one of these experiences. • a time you had to have something scanned or tested • a time something in the news proved to be wrong

Since the late 1970s, medical technology such as MRI scanning has allowed safe research into the brain without the need for surgery or X-rays. Unit 5  It’s not rocket science  63

5D  Science is for everyone, kids included

Play is one of the only human endeavours where uncertainty is actually celebrated. Uncertainty is what makes play fun.

BEAU LOTTO Read about Beau Lotto and Amy O’Toole and get ready to watch their TED Talk.  

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS

  4

Fillers

So, this game is very simple. All you have to do is read what you see. Right? Look at the Authentic listening skills box. Listen to the extract. Identify where Beau adds right / all right.    25 What are you reading? There are no words there. I said, read what you’re seeing. It literally says, ‘Wat ar ou rea in?’ That’s what you should have said. Why is this? It’s because perception is grounded in our experience. The brain takes meaningless information and makes meaning out of it, which means we never see what’s there, we never see information, we only ever see what was useful to see in the past. Which means, when it comes to perception, we’re all like this frog. It’s getting information. It’s generating behaviour that’s useful.

 2

Practise reading out the extract in Exercise 1 in a similar style to Beau.

Watch   3

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. • Are you good at science? Why? / Why not? • In what ways do you think science is similar to play? • Have you ever asked someone question about science that they could not answer? What was it?

64  Unit 5  It’s not rocket science

Put the sentences (a–h) in order. The first and last are given.   1 Perception is grounded in our experience. a These are the exact same ways of being you need in order to be a good scientist. b If perception is grounded in our history, it means we’re only ever responding according to what we’ve done before. c Uncertainty is what makes play fun. It opens possibility and it’s cooperative. d The question ‘why?’ is one of the most dangerous things you can ask, because it takes you into uncertainty. e But actually, it’s a tremendous problem, because how can we ever see differently? f So what is evolution’s answer to the problem of uncertainty? It’s play. g So if you add rules to play, you have a game. That’s actually what an experiment is. h Now … all new perceptions begin in the same way. They begin with a question. 10 So armed with these two ideas, that science is a way of being and experiments are play, we asked, can anyone become a scientist?

We can use words and phrases like right, all right, yeah, you know to ask for agreement, to check people are following or as a filler while we pause or move on to the next point.

1

  5.0

  5

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Check your order of the sentences in Exercise 4.    5.1

6

What does Beau not mention when he talks about uncertainty making play fun? a Play is adaptable to change. b Play is cooperative. c Play opens up possibility. d Play is unrewarding.

  7

Watch Part 2 of the talk. Are the sentences true (T), false (F) or not stated (NS)?    5.2 1 N one of the questions the children thought of had ever been studied before. 2 The children wanted to research if bees adapt their behaviour to solve problems like humans do. 3 Bees are one of the most intelligent insects. 4 The experiment required bees to recognize the correct colour to get a reward. 5 There were several ways for the bees to solve the puzzle the children set. 6 The results of the experiment were surprising. 7 Beau wrote the journal article. 8 The paper was rejected by the publisher because it was written in the wrong style.

 8

Watch Part 3 of the talk. Answer the questions. 

  5.3

1 How did the research finally get published? 2 What was the reaction to the research? 3 What were two lessons that Amy learnt?   9

Amy says that changing the way a person thinks about something can be easy or hard. Explain why you think it would be easy or hard to change the way people think about: • what they eat. • what they watch on TV. • where they shop.

 10

MY PERSPECTIVE

Did the TED Talk change your views about science and scientists at all? In what way?

 11

Vocabulary in Context a Watch the clips from the TED Talk. Choose the correct meanings of the words and phrases.    5.4 b Work in pairs. Talk about: • a time you received a reward for doing something. • a time you regret not bothering to do something. • an interesting / possible link that scientists have discovered in recent times. • a time you had to adapt to a new situation. • people you think should be given more of a voice.

CHALLENGE Beau and Amy do not explain much about how the experiment worked apart from showing the one pattern of flowers. Work in groups. Discuss how you would: • give rewards to bees for going to ‘good flowers’. • identify which bees are going to which flowers. • train the bees to learn the pattern of one colour surrounded by another. • check that the bees aren’t just ‘smelling’ the good flowers. • check that the bees aren’t just choosing the good flowers by colour. • check that the bees aren’t just choosing the flowers in the middle. Read the paper about Blackawton Bees and see exactly how the children set up the experiment and what they discovered. It’s freely accessible through the TED website.

Unit 5  It’s not rocket science  65

5E  Conducting experiments SPEAKING Useful language

1

Staging The first thing we’d need to do is … We’d also need to make sure that we (didn’t) … I suppose then we’d probably be best …-ing … Preparing research questions I wonder if / how / why … It’d be good to know what / whether … We’d need to try and work out … Hypothesizing I’d expect the results to show … I’d imagine that the data would probably reveal … I would / wouldn’t have thought it’d be possible to prove that …

Work in pairs. Look at the questions. Discuss why it might be useful to know the answer to each of them. What do you think the answers are? • • • • • • •

How much does homework improve exam results? Do goldfish only have a ten-second memory? How many words can you learn in an hour? Does going out with wet hair cause colds or flu? Do boys get more attention in class? And, if so, why? Are people who listen to pop music happier? What is the quickest way to have people board a plane?

  2

Work in groups. If you were going to design an experiment for a question like one of those in Exercise 1, what stages would you normally need to go through?

 3

Listen to a short lecture on how to design experiments. Note the six main stages. Then compare your answers with a partner. Use the light bulb experiment to explain each stage.    26

 4

As a class, discuss why you think: 1 certain kinds of hypotheses are easier to prove than others. 2 proving a hypothesis wrong can be an important step towards learning. 3 it’s important to record in detail how experiments are set up and data is recorded. 4 proving a hypothesis right in the way described could be seen as insufficiently scientific.

 5

Work in pairs. Design an experiment to: a find the answer to a question in Exercise 1. b see if one of the life hacks you learnt about earlier actually works. c test another life hack you have heard about. Use some of the language in the Useful language box. Decide: • how you would set the experiment up. • what kind of data you would record. • what points of comparison you would need. • what you would expect the results to prove.

6

How can you find out if goldfish really have a ten-second memory?

66  Unit 5  It’s not rocket science

Work with another pair. Explain the design of your experiment. Can your partners see any way in which it could be improved?

WRITING A scientific method 7

WRITING SKILL Describing a process

Useful language

Work in pairs. Discuss how you think writing about a process is different to telling a story. Is the guidance typical of stories (S) or scientific reports (SR)? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

You avoid using personal pronouns I / he / she, etc. You use a wide variety of words and descriptive language. You use a lot of passive sentences. You write stages in the order they happened. You define words you think your reader may not know. You use idioms and colloquial language. You summarize what you are going to tell people at the beginning. You explain the reason for doing something. You may add a diagram of what you are describing. You have a final sentence or comment that summarizes the point of the text.

8

Read about the process that was completed in preparation for the Blackawton Bee experiment on page 151. Which of the features in Exercise 7 can you identify?

9

Look at the Useful language box. Use the language and these verbs to re-tell the process in the diagram on this page. Then look at the process on page 151 again and check how well you did. let into release

10

paint remove

pick up return

place turn off

Write a method like the one on page 151 describing:

put into warm up

Introducing the process The experiment aimed to show that … The purpose of the experiment was to find out if … The diagram illustrates the process used to … Figure one shows how … Linking steps First of all, … Before starting the experiment, … The bees were then released … Once the bees had been released … After being released, the bees … Finally, … Explaining the steps They were marked to identify them They were marked in order to identify them They were marked so that they could be identified In order to do this, …

• one of the experiments you designed in Exercise 5. • an experiment you have carried out at school. • a famous historical experiment that you are interested in.

Unit 5 It’s not rocket science

67

6

Adapt to survive

I N t h i s u ni t Y O U •  discuss evolution and conservation •  read about an endangered animal •  learn about mysterious occurrences •  w atch a TED Talk about where camels come from •  write a solution to a problem 68 

The flag-footed bug has evolved to hide among leaves and flower petals.

6A  Evolution and conservation Vocabulary  Endangered species 1

Work as a class. Discuss the questions. • What is evolution? What is conservation? • What reasons are there for a species to adapt? What characteristics about a species might change?

  2

Complete the article about Madagascar with these words. adapted habitat

breed conservation hunting risk

died out saved

endangered extinct species survival

Madagascar is an island famous for its biodiversity. Evolution has created thousands of unique (1) that have (2) to life on the island. In fact, scientists have discovered more than 600 new animals since the beginning of this century. However, while it may seem that wildlife is doing well, many animals and plants are in fact at (3) because tropical forests are being destroyed to make farmland. Eighty percent of Madagascar’s human population live in poverty and depend on basic farming . The silky sifaka is one of the most (5) for (4) animals. There are only around 250 left in the wild. A (6) and prevent people programme is trying to preserve its (7) it. The national dog of Madagascar, the Coton from (8) from extinction, and now people de Tulear, was (9) it in several countries. The Madagascan Elephant Bird (10) in the 17th century. It was wasn’t so lucky. It became (11) because people stole its three metres tall and may have (12) huge eggs, which were big enough to feed a family.   3

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • • • • •

 4

What endangered species do you know? Why are they endangered? How are they being protected? What animals have become extinct? Why? What arguments can you think of for and against conservation?

Match each word with the correct group of collocations. benefit consequence conservation gene habitat risk species survival 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  5

destroy their … / preserve their … / lose its natural … … of the fittest / its long-term … / ensure its … at … of extinction / a high … / reduce the … of disease work in nature … / be involved in a … group / improve energy … an endangered … / a … of bird / discover a new … bring a lasting … / a potential … / be of … pass on their …s / in its …s / find a … for cancer as a … / have serious …s / consider the …s

Look through the collocations in Exercise 4. Identify any phrases that are new to you. Write an example sentence for each of the new phrases.

Unit 6  Adapt to survive  69

Listening 6

Listen to the interview with a conservationist. Who mentions these points – the interviewer (I), the conservationist (C) or both (B)?    27 1 Most animals have died out. 2 Conservation goes against evolution. 3 Genetic changes through evolution do not make a species more perfect. 4 Animals can’t choose to adapt to a new environment. 5 Human activity is increasing the number of extinctions. 6 We must protect endangered species because we can. 7 Conservation is expensive. 8 Humans may become extinct sooner rather than later.

  7

What reasons for possible human extinction did you hear in the interview? Listen again and check.    27

 8

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Do you like exhibitions or television programmes about the natural world? What was the last one you saw? What was it about? • Have you studied anything about conservation at school? What other things did you learn? • Would you like to be a conservationist? What might be good or bad about the job? • Have you ever taken part in action to protect something? What did you do?

grammar  Modal verbs and meaning  9

Look at the Grammar box. Then compare the first sentences in 1–5, which contain a modal verb, with the changes in the second sentences. What are the differences in meaning? 1 Y ou might stop weak species going extinct, which could be a bad thing. You will stop weak species going extinct, which is a bad thing. 2 Maybe we shouldn’t interfere. We mustn’t interfere. 3 ‘The survival of the fittest’ can suggest evolution is a kind of competition. ‘The survival of the fittest’ suggests evolution is a kind of competition. 4 If that habitat disappeared for whatever reason, they’d easily die out. When the habitat disappears, the animals die out. 5 Shall we leave it there? Could we leave it there? Modal verbs and meaning A modal verb (would, will, may, might, could, can, should, shall, must) adds a general meaning to another verb to show a speaker’s attitude or intention. The first thing that will strike people is … = I am certain it strikes people. The first thing that should strike people is … = I believe it strikes people, but I’m not certain. Other meanings are: certainty, uncertainty, obligation, permission, suggestion, possibility and frequency (habit).

Check your answers on page 138. Do Exercises 1 and 2. Baobab trees in Madagascar have adapted to survive in places where there is little rainfall. Their wide trunks can store large amounts of water.

70  Unit 6  Adapt to survive

 10 Read about National Geographic explorer Çağan

 11

Şekercioğlu. What similarities can you find with what you heard in the interview? Think about:

1 the rate of extinction. 2 the importance of conservation. 3 what happens to animals that adapt and then face a sudden change. Growing up in Turkey, Çağan Şekercioğlu was once taken to a child psychologist because he (1) constantly brought back small animals and insects to his house. Fortunately it didn’t end his interest in wildlife, and now he’s a professor of biology working to protect birds in countries such as Costa Rica, Australia, Ethiopia, the USA and Turkey. He says (2) losing 25 percent of all bird species this century is a possibility, and that whatever happens to birds (3) is certain to happen to other animals and even people. The question is not if (4) it’s better for us to do something about it, but when (5) are we going to decide to do something and (6) what do we decide to do.

Rewrite the underlined parts in Exercise 10 using modal verbs. Use each modal verb in the Grammar box at least once.

 12 On a piece of paper, write nine sentences about

yourself, using a different modal verb in each sentence. Your teacher will read out the sentences. Guess who the person is.

 13

MY PERSPECTIVE

Make a list of animals, habitats, jobs, businesses, languages, customs, activities or skills that are at risk of dying out. Would you try to preserve any of them? Why? / Why not?

In Costa Rica, he’s found that species (7) sometimes become endangered because the area of forest they live in shrinks as it becomes surrounded by agriculture. The birds are so well adapted to a certain part of the forest that they (8) refuse to move even when bigger areas of forest (9) are possibly close by. Çağan says (10) it’s essential that conservationists work with local people to improve the situation by explaining to farmers why (11) they’re better off encouraging bird diversity. For example, if farmers encourage birds to live in their areas of land, (12) the birds will eat insects that destroy their crops, which could possibly increase farmers’ profits.

Unit 6  Adapt to survive  71

6B  Tree life? Vocabulary building  Compound nouns We often use two or more nouns together to create a new meaning. The first noun acts like an adjective. It describes the type of thing, its use, the material it is made from or other aspects of the second noun, such as where it is found.

6

Read the article to check your ideas in Exercise 5. What else do you learn about questions 1 and 2 in Exercise 5?

  7

Which statements are supported by the article? Which parts of the article help you decide your answers? 1 The tree octopus is the most endangered creature in the USA. 2 Washington State is one of the wettest places in the USA. 3 The tree octopus may provide clues about how early sea creatures adapted to live on land. 4 The animals often live in small groups. 5 Many companies that cut down trees in the forests are not doing enough to protect octopuses. 6 Young octopuses are dying because the seas are increasingly polluted. 7 Soon there may be no tree octopuses left. 8 Few people are aware of the dangers facing octopuses.

Ice ages caused the extinction of many species. Bookshops are dying out in our country because people are buying books online. 1

Choose the correct forms to complete the sentences. 1 We often go skiing in the Olympic Mountains / Mountain Olympics north of here. 2 On average there is 20 centimetres of rainfall / fallrain here in March. 3 Many environmental charities run campaigns social media / social media campaigns. 4 Scientists believe there might be many sea creatures / creature seas that still have not been discovered. 5 I really like our teacher science / science teacher. She brings the subject to life. 6 I avoid all animal products / product animals. I don’t even wear shoe leather / leather shoes.

 2

8

• Did you know about the tree octopus before? If not, what surprised you most? • Which of the threats to the tree octopus do you think is the most serious? Why? • Which of the different kinds of activism do you think are the most effective? Why? • Should people care about the tree octopus? Why / Why not?

Work in groups. Starting with these compound nouns, how many other compound nouns can you create by changing one word each time? Use a dictionary if necessary. farm animal

leather shoes

rainfall

science teacher

  9

 3

Answer the questions. 

  29

1 Why is the story mentioned? 2 What do the findings seem to suggest?

Critical thinking  Assessing information

Think of one animal from these categories that you are familiar with and one that you would like to find out more about. farm animals

Look at the source for the article. Do you think it is reliable? What other sources could you check to make sure the information is accurate?

 10 Listen to a news extract about the tree octopus story.

ice age: ice cream; cream cheese; cheesecake; cake tin; biscuit tin; tin opener

Reading

Work in groups. Discuss the questions.

pets

sea creatures

You will often see information or read something that is unfamiliar. You need to do further reading or check the information is from a reliable source.

wild animals

 11 4

Work in groups. Compare the animals you thought of. Explain your choices.

 5

Work in pairs. Look at the photo on page 73 and discuss the questions. 1 Where do you think this animal is found? 2 What is unusual about it? 3 How do you think the photographer was able to get the shot?

72  Unit 6  Adapt to survive

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Why do you think so many people believe this story? • Looking back, is there anything in the story that should have made you more suspicious? • Can you think of any other examples of fake internet stories like this?

 12 MY PERSPECTIVE

Work in groups. What are the consequences of fake news stories?

10:31 AM

85%

Help save the endangered

Pacific Northwest

Tree Octopus from extinction ABOUT

HELP

FAQs SIGHTINGS MEDIA ACTIVITIES LINKS

  28 About About

The Pacific Northwest tree octopus (Octopus 1 The Pacific Northwest tree octopus (Octopus paxarbolis) isis only only found found in in the the forests forests of of Paxarbolis) Washington State, on the eastern side of Washington State, on the eastern side of the 5 the Olympic Mountains, in the USA. These Olympic Mountains, in the United States. creatures reach an average size of between 5 These creatures reach an average size of 30 and 35 and live for between 30centimetres and 35 centimetres andaround live for four years. They are unusual in that they around four years. They are unusual in that live live bothboth in water and and on land, a facta made they in water on land, fact 10 possible by the very high amounts of rainfall made possible by the very high amounts of in this part of the USA. 10 rainfall in this part of the United States. Possessing the largest brain of any octopus, Possessing the largest brain of any octopus, the tree octopus explores its surroundings by the tree octopus explores its surroundings by touch and sight. Some scientists believe that touch and sight. Some scientists believe that 15 the way it has adapted to life in the forest the way it has adapted to life in the forest mirrors the way early life forms adapted to 15 mirrors the way early life forms adapted to life away from the water. Although they are life away from the water. Although they are not social animals like humans, they can not social animals like humans, they can still show emotions by changing their skin still show emotions by changing their skin 20 colour: red indicates anger and white, fear. colour: red indicates anger and white, fear. Normally, though, they are a green-brown 20 Normally, though, they are a green-brown colour that matches their surroundings. colour that matches their surroundings. Every spring, tree octopuses leave their Every spring, tree octopuses leave their homes and travel to the coast to breed. Males homes and travel to the coast to breed. Males 25 soon return to the forest, while females lay soon return to the forest, while females lay their eggs underwater. The young then spend 25 their eggs underwater. The young then spend their first month or so floating near to the their first month or so floating near to the shore before moving out of the water and shore before moving out of the water and beginning their adult lives in the forest. beginning their adult lives. Source: http://zapatopi.net/treeoctopus/

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Why it’s it isendangered endangered Why

Although the the tree tree octopus octopus is Although is not not yet yet on on the the official list of endangered animals, it should official list of endangered animals, it should be,as asnumbers numbers are are now now seriously seriously low. be low. ItIt faces faces many threats: trees in Pacific-Northwest many threats: trees in the Pacific Northwest forests are are constantly forests constantly being beingcut cutdown; down;new roads have cut off access to water; the growth new roads have cut off access to water; of local towns has introduced house cats into the growth of local towns has introduced the region which hunt the octopuses house cats into the region, and they and hunt pollution is getting worse. Immediate the octopuses and pollution is gettingaction worse. needs to beaction taken needs to stoptothe octopus Immediate betree taken to stop from becoming extinct. the tree octopus from becoming extinct.

Become an an activist activist Become Here are some things you can do to help

Here are some things you can do to help protect the last few tree octopuses: protect the last few tree octopuses. • Write to the government to say you are • Write to the government to say you are worried and that you feel the tree octopus worried and that you feel the tree octopus should be given special protection and should be given special protection and included on the Endangered Species List. included on the Endangered Species List. • Write to celebrities, asking them to talk in • Write to celebrities asking them to talk interviews about the dangers facing the about the dangers facing the tree octopus tree octopus. in interviews. • Let the world know about the tree • Let the world know about the tree octopus: tell your family and friends. octopus: tell your family and friends. • Tell people not to buy products made • Tell people not to buy products made by companies that don’t protect the tree by companies that don’t protect the tree octopus when cutting down trees. octopus when cutting down trees. • Start an online campaign! Encourage • Speople tart an to online sign acampaign! petition. Encourage people to sign a petition.

Unit 6  Adapt to survive  73

6C  Mysterious changes Grammar  Modal verbs and infinitive forms 1

Listen to three people. What did they change their minds about? Why?    30

  2

Listen to the people again. Complete the sentences. 

  30

1a I attention when I read about it. 1b All the links about the different kinds of tree octopuses go to the same that. page. I really me that the photos were fake. 1c Even my little brother me how cruel it was, and I honestly 2a I mean, you . an impact because I’ve 2b I don’t know, but if it was that, it been vegan for quite some time now. touch one or pick one up if the chance had arisen. 3a I certainly about owning one, that’s 3b I for sure. him for three 3c Our favourite is a python called Monty. We years this November.  3

Look at the sentences in Exercise 2. Answer the questions. 1 Which sentence describes a period leading up to a future point? 2 Are the other sentences about the past, the present or the future? 3 Which modal verb form emphasizes that an action was in progress at the same time as another?

Modal verbs and infinitive forms Modal verbs can be followed by different kinds of infinitive forms. I can’t see it. We should be doing more to help. It wouldn’t have made any difference. You can’t have been listening properly. More attention must be paid to this issue. The eggs must have (must’ve) been moved from the nest.  4

Volcanic gases are made up of many different gases, including methane.

Work in groups. Look at the Grammar box. Decide if each pair of sentences has the same meaning or not. Discuss any differences. 1a They can’t have been serious. 1b They must have been joking. 2a I should have helped him. 2b I would have helped him. 3a It must have been really interesting. 3b It was really interesting. 4a I guess that might have been the reason. 4b I guess that could have been the reason. 5a You shouldn’t have texted me. 5b You shouldn’t have been texting me. 6a It should’ve arrived by now. 6b It will have arrived by now.

Check your answers on page 138. Do Exercises 3 and 4.

74  Unit 6  Adapt to survive

 5

Pronunciation Weak forms of have and been When the sentences in Exercise 4 are said slowly and carefully, have and been are often pronounced differently to how they are pronounced in fast speech. a Listen to each sentence from Exercise 4. Notice how have and been change their sound in fast speech.    31 b Work in pairs. Practise reading the sentences in Exercise 4 slowly and quickly.

6

Complete the summary using the modal verbs and the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Make one modal verb negative. Reported sightings of the Loch Ness monster soon (will / go (1) on) for a century! In 1933, a man named George Spicer reported seeing something that looked like a plesiosaur, a kind of long-necked marine dinosaur. Some people very easily think such a creature (2) (could / survive) in the quiet Scottish waters, away from people, while others are convinced (must / lie) or that he that Spicer (3) (might / see) a piece of wood (4) covered in green water plants. Most scientists question the whole story and claim that a creature like this (can / live) in the loch* for so long (5) without any real human contact. If it was real, they say, it (would / capture) by now– or at (6) least caught on film. Others, though, suspect that the (might / develop) special monster (7) skills that help it to hide from those hunting it. Even today true believers can be found on the shores of the loch (should / trying to spot a beast that (8) die out) 65 million years ago.

Dinogorgon became extinct a quarter of a billion years ago, long before dinosaurs roamed the earth.

 8

Student A: The Great Dying Many theories to explain the Great Dying have been put forward – everything from asteroids from space hitting Earth to huge volcanic eruptions. Volcanoes did in fact play a part in the event. At the time, Siberian volcanoes were erupting almost constantly, sending out huge quantities of a gas called methane. This resulted in the seas and the atmosphere being poisoned and many species dying out. Student B: The Bloop Theories put forward to explain the Bloop ranged from the sensible to the strange. Some people thought the noise must be from an unknown deep-sea creature while others thought it could be mermaids or voices from a lost city. In the end, it turned out that the sound was actually made by an icequake. A large mass of ice in Antarctica was slowly breaking up and was picked up by NOAA.

loch a Scottish word for a lake    7

Work in pairs. Read the two paragraphs about mysteries of the natural world. Then discuss what you think happened. Use modal verbs where necessary. The Great Dying Around 250 million years ago, long before dinosaurs roamed the Earth, about 95 percent of all species were suddenly wiped out. This was by far the biggest mass extinction the world has ever seen and the event – widely known as the Great Dying – came close to ending all life on the planet. Everything alive today comes from the five percent of species that survived back then.

Read about what really happened. Student A: read about the Great Dying; Student B: read about the Bloop. See if you guessed correctly. Then report back to your partner.

            9

CHOOSE 1 Work in groups. Prepare a short presentation about a mystery you have read about or know. Include at least four different modal verbs. 2 Write a story about something you regret doing – or not doing. Include at least four different modal verbs. 3 Work in pairs. Write a conversation between two people about an influential and inspiring person. Include at least four different modal verbs.

The Bloop The Bloop was an extremely low and very powerful underwater sound first detected at points across the vast Pacific Ocean by NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Bloop was significantly different from other previously recorded sounds and many theories emerged to explain the mysterious noise. Unit 6  Adapt to survive  75

6D  You have no idea where camels really come from

I’ve learnt that, actually, a lot of scientists are historians, too. They make sense of the past.

Latif Nasser

Read about Latif Nasser and get ready to watch his TED Talk. 

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS

  3

Work in pairs. Write down as many other facts about camels as you can. Then compare your ideas with another pair of students. Do any of the other pair’s facts surprise you? Why?

 4

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Complete the summary with one to three words in each gap.    6.1

Understanding fast speech When phrases are spoken very quickly, it can be difficult to hear individual words because words get shortened or sound as one. 1

Look at the Authentic listening skills box. Then listen to these extracts from the TED Talk where people speak quickly. Try to write down what you hear.    32

One day in 2006, Natalia Rybczynski was digging at a south of the North site less than (1) Pole when she found a strange object. To begin with, . she thought it was a piece of (2) She collected more fragments over the next four years to find out and eventually used a (3) of a huge mammal. that it was a (4) When they cut a piece off one fragment, they collagen, which is a substance (5) in found in bones and which (6) the ice. A couple of years later, she sent the fragments to a colleague who had invented a technique called , which can identify an animal from (7) a bone. They discovered it was a(n) (8) million-year-old camel and that it must have weighed , which is (10) (9) than camels today.

1 … she thought it was just a splinter of wood, at the Fyles Leaf Bed because before – prehistoric plant parts. 2 How certain were you that you had it right, like … that , like? 3 … something like a cow or a sheep. But . It was just too big. 4 … you’re going to have different body sizes. , so they’re actually functionally like giraffes. 5 And, as a historian, you start with an idea .

Watch   2

Work in groups. Do you think the sentences are true (T) or false (F)? Why? 1 2 3 4 5

Camels have been around for about a million years. The first camels were only found in North America. Giraffes and llamas are in the same family as camels. The hump on a camel’s back contains water. Camels have evolved to walk on sand.

76  Unit 6  Adapt to survive

  6.0

  5

Watch Part 2 of the talk. Check your answers in Exercise 2. Correct the false answers.    6.2 Camels have been around longer than a million years. According to Latif, they have been around for 45 million years.

6

Watch Part 2 of the talk again. Choose the correct options.    6.2

  9

VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT a Watch the clips from the TED Talk. Choose the correct meanings of the words and phrases.    6.4

1 Scientists believe that at first, camels were only found in hot places / cold places. 2 They also believe that 40 million years ago, there were around 20 / 24 different species of camels. 3 They say that some early camels were as small as dogs / rabbits. 4 They also say that one branch of camels became llamas / giraffes. 5 Some scientists believe that a camel’s hump helped it to survive long walks / winters. 6 It is believed that three and a half million years ago, the weather was significantly warmer / cooler than today.   7

Watch Part 3 of the talk. Which sentence best summarizes the point Latif is making?    6.3 a It’s important to change your mind about things. b Scientists should also study history. c Much of what we think we know might be wrong. d Camels are well suited to different environments.

 8

b Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Have you ever experienced hitting a wall? Why? How did you overcome it? • What scientific theories still have no proof? • What good spots do you know to: -  have a picnic? -  see wildlife? -  hang out with friends? -  watch the world go by? • What things would you be willing or unwilling to do to be successful in life?

What discoveries or news have you heard about the natural world recently? Think about: • • • •

archaeology. new or lost species. the sea. medical advances.

CHALLENGE Think of a time in your life when you have had to rethink what you thought you knew about something – or someone. • • • •

What did you use to believe? Why? What caused you to rethink your beliefs? Did you develop your new ideas quickly or slowly? How do you feel about the thing or person now?

Work in groups. Tell each other your experiences. Ask and answer questions about the changes. Decide who experienced the biggest change.

Unit 6  Adapt to survive  77

6E  Finding a solution SPEAKING Speaking strategy

1

Telling anecdotes Anecdotes are short real-life stories. When we want to tell an anecdote, we often give a very short summary of what we are going to say. We might also add a comment or say how we felt in order to make it sound interesting.

1 Where do you think the photo was taken? Who might the man be? 2 How would you feel if you were the man in the photo?   2

Read the opening lines of six different anecdotes. Which sounds most interesting to you? What would you ask about it? a I once saw a polar bear in a zoo. It was really sad. b I almost stepped on a scorpion once. c My brother once tracked a group of gorillas in Africa. d When I went to the city, I saw lots of foxes in the street. e Where my gran lives, there are vultures. We once climbed up to their nests. f I hate cows. I was chased by some once. It was really scary!

Useful language Responding to anecdotes If the listener is interested, they will say things like: Really? Why was that? Wow! What happened? Really? They have foxes there?

Work in pairs. Look at the photo and discuss the questions.

  3

You are going to tell an anecdote about a time you encountered some kind of wild animal – big or small. Make notes using these questions and think of a sentence you will say to start the anecdote to get people interested. • • • • • •

 4

When did it happen? How old were you? Where was it? What happened? What was the animal doing? How did it make you feel? Did it have an effect on you afterwards?

Work in pairs. Tell your anecdotes. Your partner should show interest and ask questions to help you.

Some people have a special connection with animals.

78  Unit 6  Adapt to survive

writing  A problem-solution essay  5

6

Tigers are endangered in the wild. Do you think having them in zoos and parks is good for their survival? Why? / Why not? What other things might help them? writing skill  Topic sentences Read the essay about how people can help to protect tigers on page 151. Put the topic sentences in the correct order as they might appear in the text.

a The author J.A. Mills suggests we should strengthen rules about domestic tigers. b Finally, we should work closely with local people. c According to the WWF (World Wildlife Fund), there are only about 4,000 tigers left in the wild. d Countries have to work together to protect the habitat.   7

In the essay, the writer refers to various organizations and people. Answer the questions.

Writing Strategy Topic sentences It is good to start a new paragraph with a topic sentence – a sentence that explains what the paragraph is about. Useful language Naming sources According to [name / organization/ book, etc.], … The [job title], [name], says that … I agree with [job title], [name], when she/he says that …

• Why does the writer do this? • Do you think they are good sources to reference? Why? / Why not? • What other information would be good to know or what other sources could you look for? 8

Work in pairs. Choose one of the animals or things from your list that are at risk of dying out (page 71, Exercise 13). Find out more information and make notes on three big problems it faces. Then think of ways to tackle these problems and help save it.

  9

Work on your own. Using your notes, write a problem-solution essay. • In the first paragraph, outline the problems and say you will suggest solutions. Then tackle each problem in a subsequent paragraph. Use the writing model on page 151 as a guide if you need to. • Find two or three sources that you can add to your essay to give it greater authority. Decide how you want to use them and where to place the sources. Use the Useful language box to help you.

 10 Exchange your essay with your partner. Read your partner’s work and

comment on:

• the structure and the strength of the argument. • the use of sources. • the use of language.

Unit 6  Adapt to survive  79

 7

Outside the box

I N t h i s u ni t Y O U •  discuss the importance of creativity •  read about creativity tests •  imagine alternative outcomes to situations •  w atch a TED Talk about making up new words •  come up with creative approaches

80 

7A  Rules of creativity The members of the band A-WA are three Israeli sisters who mix traditional Yemenite music with modern electronic dance music.

Vocabulary  Breaking the mould 1

Work in pairs. How many different words based on the root word create can you think of? Think of at least two collocations for each. create

 2

create a group, create excitement

Complete the sentences with words based on the root word create. You can use the same word more than once. 1 Everyone should learn a musical instrument in their spare time to encourage . of 2 Students have not needed to learn facts since the the internet. 3 You need to study a lot and copy other people before you can be yourself. something 4 There aren’t many people who actually completely new. . 5 Watching a lot of television kills people’s do better at school. 6 People who can think

 3

Identify the collocations with the different forms of create in Exercise 2. Were they the same as the ones you thought of in Exercise 1?

 4

Work in pairs. Do you agree with the sentences in Exercise 2? Why? / Why not?

  5

Complete the phrases with these pairs of words. Use a dictionary if necessary. approaches + solution invents + follows obeys + breaks

comes up with + adapts makes up + writes writes + scores

the rules or 1 someone who does what they are told and them someone who a test or someone who 2 someone who highly on a test a new word or someone who 3 someone who word definitions to a 4 someone who comes up with a wide variety of problem or someone who analyzes things and comes up with a simple 5 someone who 6 someone who who  6

something or someone who a set of rules to make something new ways of doing things or someone existing ways of doing things

MY PERSPECTIVE Work in pairs. Which person in each phrase in Exercise 5 do you think is more creative? Explain your ideas.

Unit 7  Outside the box  81

Listening  7

Listen to an extract from a podcast. Decide which sentence best summarizes the main point.    33

Grammar  First, second, third and mixed conditionals  10 Work in pairs. Look at the Grammar box. Discuss what

forms you can see in the if clauses and result clauses in each of the four sentences.

a You can only be truly creative if you think like a child. b The best monsters are usually created by children. c Schools could do more to encourage creativity. d In the future, there will be lots of new kinds of jobs. 8

First, second, third and mixed conditionals First conditionals a If you’re at school today, you’ll probably start working sometime in the 2020s.

Listen again. Choose the correct option (a–c) to complete each sentence.    33

Second conditionals b If these drawings were painted more realistically, they would look amazing.

1 The Monster Engine a exists across a range of different formats b has only been around for a few years c was created by Dave Devries and his children

Third conditionals c If Dave Devries hadn’t spent a day with his niece back in 1998, The Monster Engine would never have happened.

2 Dave Devries started working on The Monster Engine a to make one of his relatives happy b because he illustrates comic books c after being inspired by a young child 3 Sir Ken Robinson claimed that a drawing cartoons makes you more creative b if you’re creative, you’re more likely to do well in the future c people will need to work harder in the next 20 or 30 years 4 The speaker thinks that, at its heart, creativity is about a playing games b listening to young people more c not giving up and learning from mistakes  9

Work in groups. Discuss whether you agree with the statements. • • • •

It’s sometimes useful to see the world like a child. Jobs will be very different in the future. Skills are becoming more important than knowledge. Trying and failing are important parts of the creative process.

Dave Devries applies colour and shading to children’s artwork (right) to bring their pictures to life.

82  Unit 7  Outside the box

Mixed conditionals d If their schools had encouraged unusual ways of seeing the world, lots of adults would be more creative.  11

Decide which kind of conditional sentences we use to talk about: 1 an imaginary past situation and an imaginary present result. 2 an imaginary situation and result now or in the future. 3 an imaginary situation and result in the past. 4 a possible situation and result now or in the future.

Check your answers on page 140. Do Exercises 1–3.

 12 Complete the conditional sentences by using the

correct forms of the verbs in brackets.

Many people think of creativity as chance Eureka moments*. The mathematician and inventor who coined the term Eureka, Archimedes, discovered that the weight of an object floating on water is the same as the amount of water it displaces. He made this discovery by chance. (pay) more attention to the If he (1) amount of water in his bathtub, he (2) (not step) into it and spilt water over the side. Apparently, (not have) penicillin today if we (3) (be) a bit tidier Alexander Fleming (4) and washed his petri dishes before he went on holiday. On his return, he discovered the penicillin mould had killed bacteria on the dishes. What (5) (our world / be) like now without these discoveries? The book Inside the Box by Drew Boyd and Jacob Goldenberg suggests that such moments are rare and (rely) on these ‘methods’, if we (6) we would not get very far. In fact, the authors say, most inventions come from following a limited set of rules. The rules can help failing schools and companies: if they (integrate) the rules into their (7) teaching and product development, they (become) more successful. The (8) implication of their argument is that it’s not all up to luck. Eureka moment sudden understanding of a solution to something that was previously unknown

 13 Work in pairs. Read these situations and see how

many conditional sentences you can come up with to talk about:

• the different outcomes and how the situations could have been avoided. • what could be done next. Situation 1 A group of schoolchildren were waiting outside before lunch. There was snow on the ground. The teacher who usually supervises the children arrived late because of a meeting. The students were pushing each other and playing around. Two students slipped on the ice and one ended up in hospital. The treatment cost a lot of money. The parents complained, but the school says that students have to wait outside because a health and safety report explained that there was not enough space inside; therefore, it was dangerous to queue up there. Situation 2 Last year, the teacher who usually helps students with study skills lost her job because the school was trying to save money. Since then, one of the best students in the school has got into trouble because she copied an essay from the internet. She is worried this will damage her chances of going to a good university. She says she only did it because she was under a lot of pressure from her parents and teachers and did not have anyone to go to for advice.  14 Work with another pair of students. Compare

your ideas in Exercise 13. Who thought of the most conditional sentences? Who has the main responsibility for the outcomes in both situations?

Unit 7  Outside the box  83

7B  Testing times Vocabulary building  Noun forms 1

      7

Look at these pairs of words. How are the nouns formed from verbs and adjectives?

1 2 3 4 5 6

Verb Noun Adjective Noun analyze analysis concerned concern assess assessment intelligent intelligence conclude conclusion flexible flexibility know knowledge fluent fluency publish publication logical logic vary variety useful usefulness      2

Choose the correct words from Exercise 1 to complete the sentences. 1 I know a lot of words in English, but I need to become in using them! more when I do anything in 2 My main English is not to make any mistakes. 3 I don’t like it when there is a huge of options on a menu. I did 4 I got a good grade in the last for English. 5 I’d like to write a novel some day and it myself. order from 6 I like to do things in a(n) A to B to C. in my study schedule allows me 7 The to study when I feel most productive. 8 I don’t think exams are a(n) demonstration of how much people know.

 3

Work in pairs. Which sentences in Exercise 2 are true for you? What do you think they say about you? Which sentences do you think are signs of creativity? Why?

4

Work in groups. Think of other verb / noun and adjective / noun combinations that follow the patterns in Exercise 1.

Look at the four examples of divergent thinking tasks in lines 12–24. Work in groups and complete one.

  9

Compare your results in Exercise 8 with a partner. Use the questions to evaluate their creativity. What do you think the questions tell you about a person’s creativity? • How many logical solutions are there to the task? • How original are the solutions? • How well can the solutions be explained?

CRITICAL THINKING  Fact and opinion Facts are statements that are true. Opinions are statements showing what people believe.  10 Look at these statements about Torrance’s Tests

of Creative Thinking. Decide if they present facts (F) or opinions (O). Does each fact or opinion support the value of the tests as a test of creativity? Why? / Why not?

1 Torrance found that people often scored very differently in the different parts of the tests. 2 Torrance believed you could teach creativity and the tests were originally teaching tools. 3 The tests give the idea that creativity is all one thing. Fail the tests and you are not creative. 4 The way Torrance collected information about adults’ creative success was to ask them to fill in a form to report what they had achieved creatively. 5 Learning to solve one problem rarely helps to solve another kind of problem. 6 It’s difficult to see how the tests measure creativity in science or mathematics.

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. • What do you think it means to be creative? • Do you think creativity is only connected to the arts? Why? / Why not? • How important is creativity these days? Why? • Do you think it is possible to assess levels of creativity? Why? / Why not? • Who is the most creative person you know? Why?

 6

Read about a set of tests commonly used to assess creativity. Think about the questions as you read. 1 What do the tests involve? 2 Does the author think they are good tests of creativity?

84  Unit 7  Outside the box

When were the tests first published? How are the tests scored? How are divergent and convergent thinking different? Why were people worried about children’s test scores? What are the possible causes for the drop in test scores? What is problem-based learning? How does it encourage creativity?

     8

Reading      5

Work in pairs. Answer the questions and discuss your ideas. Then read about the tests again to check.

 11

MY PERSPECTIVE Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • After reading about the tests, would you change any of your answers in Exercise 5? • Would you like to use the problem-based way of learning? Why? / Why not? • How is creativity encouraged in your education system or school? Can you think of ways to increase it?

Testing creative thinking   34   It is now over 50 years since the

5

first publication of E.P. Torrance’s Tests of Creative Thinking, and they continue to be used worldwide as standard assessments of creativity.

10

The tests typically consist of ‘divergent thinking’ tasks – the ability to generate a wide variety of solutions that are then scored on fluency, flexibility, originality and how fully explained they are. For example: • Ways to improve: What could you do to make a toy truck more fun to play with?

15

25

30

40

45

• Imagine consequences: How would the world be different if everyone had an eye in the back of their head? • Alternative uses: How many unusual uses for a brick can you think of?

20

35

• Make drawings from a shape: Turn the Xs into pictures people might be surprised by. The X can be in any part of the picture. Add details to tell complete stories and give each picture a title. Some question if the tests fully assess creativity because they say creativity is about originality and usefulness. Creativity not only requires divergent thinking but also ‘convergent thinking’ where you find one single solution that you feel is the best for the problem you are trying to solve. Torrance followed the lives of children who first took his tests to see if they

50

55

60

predicted creative achievements as adults. Analyses of these studies suggest they do. In fact, his tests are better at judging future creative success than intelligence tests. This is why they are frequently used to identify top managers in business and children for special educational programmes. It is also why there was concern in the USA when the magazine Newsweek reported that children’s scores on the tests were falling. Some have argued that this drop is because of children’s lifestyles: too many video games, too much TV and too little freedom to make choices. Others have suggested that education in the USA has become too focused on exam results, so teachers use fewer creative activities and favour more traditional learning by heart. This is in contrast to countries with a history of more traditional activities like memorization and practice drills such as China, which are doing the opposite and encouraging creativity through techniques such as problem-based learning. Problem-based learning involves setting a genuine problem such as reducing noise in a school library or deciding on a week’s menu of meals for an athlete. In reaching a conclusion, students have to do research across several subjects and be creative in the fullest sense. No doubt Torrance would have approved if he was still alive. One of the tests for creative thinking involves making drawings from a shape. Unit 7  Outside the box  85

7C  If only … Do you ever wish you were a better dancer?

Grammar  Wish, if only, would rather     1

Work in pairs. Look at the Grammar box. Discuss which of the statements are true for you.

Wish, if only, would rather a b c d e f g

I wish I could draw better. I wish I was a better dancer. I wish my parents hadn’t forced me to learn Latin. I sometimes wish my classmates wouldn’t make so much noise. I wish I didn’t have to do arts subjects. I’d rather the teacher didn’t set us any homework. My parents would rather I studied something else at university instead of what I want. h If only I had an eye in the back of my head! i I often say to myself ‘If only I’d spent more time thinking about this before I started.’ j If only I wasn’t sitting here now!      2

Look again at the sentences in the Grammar box and find examples of: 1 2 3 4

     3

the past simple. the past forms of can and will. the past continuous. the past perfect.

Which sentences in the Grammar box refer to: 1 a wish about a present situation? 2 a wish about a past situation? 3 a wish or preference for someone to do something differently in the present or the future?

Check your answers on page 140. Do Exercises 4–6.  4

Complete the exchanges using correct forms of the verbs in bold. 1 have to sleep? Imagine what you A: Don’t you ever wish you could do with all those extra hours. B: Stop it! You’re making me feel tired, talking about sleep! 2 hear that song. I can’t get it out of my head now. A: I wish I B: I know. It’s incredibly catchy, isn’t it? 3 hate A: With those grades, maybe you should study medicine. the sight of blood or needles! Honestly, I B: Yeah, if only I could never work as a doctor. 4 finish A: Shall we stop now and do the rest tomorrow? it today. It’ll bother me all night if B: I’d rather we we leave it.

86  Unit 7  Outside the box

5 have + be A: You four should start a band. You could be really big! the money to B: Yeah, if only we buy proper equipment – and the ideas! A: You have lots of good ideas! I wish I as creative as you! 6 be + relax A: I wish you there. You would’ve loved it. a B: Yeah, I know. I wish my parents bit and let me go out more. A: Well, maybe next time.  5

PRONUNCIATION  Elision of consonants t and d

a People might hear. I need to think more carefully about it. b The place is a mess. We could get things done a lot quicker. c It would’ve saved me a lot of effort. IC I don’t have time to do it now. AS d I don’t really like meetings. Unfortunately, he’s expecting me to be there. e He could have become a model. He would probably get in the school basketball team.   7

Work in pairs. Look again at the sentences that are true for you in Exercise 1.  Add comments like in Exercise 6.

    8

Read the poem. What do you think happened? Regrets I wish I could tell you how I really feel And say what’s on my mind. I wish I hadn’t done what I did Or had thought before I acted. I wish I was spending my time with you Instead of sitting here all alone.

When people talk fast, they often miss out the final consonant when the next word starts with a consonant. I’d get bored will often sound like I-ge-bored. a Look at the phrases with wish, if only and I’d rather in Exercise 4. Which final consonants do you think might disappear? b Listen to the phrases and repeat them.   6

  35

We often add comments to statements with wish, if only and would rather. Match the statements (1–5) with the pairs of follow-up comments (a–e). Decide whether each comment refers to an imagined consequence (IC) or the actual situation (AS). 1 2 3 4 5

I wish you’d told me earlier. c If only he was taller. I’d rather we didn’t talk now. I wish they would do more to help. I wish I didn’t have to go.

      9

CHOOSE 1 Write a similar poem to the one in Exercise 8 about regrets. Write it from the perspective of another person such as a parent, a student, a teacher, a sportsperson, etc. 2 Write a list of eight sentences like those in the Grammar box for your classmates to discuss. 3 Write five things you would wish for if anything was possible. Discuss your ideas with a partner. I wish money grew on trees.

Do you ever wish you were taller?

Unit 7  Outside the box  87

7D Go ahead, make up new words!

Everybody who speaks English decides together what’s a word and what’s not a word.

ERIN MCKEAN

Read about Erin McKean and get ready to watch her TED Talk.

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS Speeding up and slowing down speech

WATCH 3

4

Look at the Authentic listening skills box. Then listen to the opening of Erin’s talk. Identify where she slows 36 down and speeds up. I’m a lexicographer. I make dictionaries. And my job as a lexicographer is to try to put all the words possible into the dictionary. My job is not to decide what a word is; that is your job. Everybody who speaks English decides together what’s a word and what’s not a word. Every language is just a group of people who agree to understand each other. Now, sometimes when people are trying to decide whether a word is good or bad, they don’t really have a good reason. So they say something like, ‘Because grammar!’ I don’t actually really care about grammar too much – don’t tell anybody.

2

Work in pairs. Compare your answers in Exercise 1. Practise reading the paragraph using the same kind of speech patterns as Erin.

88 Unit 7 Outside the box

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Which dictionaries do you use? Why? • Do you know how dictionaries are made? How? • Do you like learning new words in English and in your own language? Why? / Why not? • Have you heard / seen any new words recently? Where? What do they mean? • Have you ever made up a new word? What was it? What does it mean?

Speakers often vary the speed of their speech in order to maintain people’s interest and for other specific reasons. For example, they may speak faster when they are saying very common phrases, they are making jokes or making comments that are not important. They may speak slowly when they are starting their speech, they want to emphasize something important or they are thinking of what to say next. 1

7.0

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Match the extracts (a–e) with 7.1 these notes (1–3). 1 New words 2 The unconscious natural grammar rules that live inside our brains 3 The grammar of ‘manners’, known as usage a ‘Because grammar!’ b ‘This is a wug, right? It’s a wug. Now … there are two …’ c ‘… take a hoodie, don’t forget to obey the law of gravity.’ d ‘Can you wear hats inside?’ e ‘No! No. Creativity stops right here, whippersnappers.’

5

Work in pairs. Compare your ideas in Exercise 4 and explain the point Erin was making in each extract.

    6

b Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • What did your parents teach you about manners? Do you think good manners are important? • Why might someone be heartbroken? What would you do or say to him or her? • What do you do to edit your essays before you hand them in? Do you get anyone else to help? • Give an example of a time when it was difficult to get your meaning across. Did you succeed? • What films or books grabbed your attention right at the beginning? How? Did they keep your attention?

Look at these notes about six ways to make new words. Watch Part 2 of the talk. Complete the notes.    7.2

Erin gives six ways to create new words in English: 1 2 3 4 5 6        7

: using words from another language, e.g. kumquat and caramel. Compounding: putting two words together, . e.g. : putting parts of two words . together, e.g. : e.g. using a noun as a Functional . verb, e.g. a part of the word Back formation: . to create a new one, e.g. Acronym: taking the first letter of several words, . e.g.

Watch Part 3 of the talk. The purpose of her talk is to    7.3

a explain her job and what is important about it b argue that words are more important than grammar c encourage people to create words and contribute to her online dictionary d argue that it is important to break rules to be more creative e explain different ways new words are formed and disappear from use 8

VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT a Watch the clips from the TED Talk. Choose the correct meanings of the words.    7.4

 9

MY PERSPECTIVE Work in groups. Discuss the questions. • Why do you think these groups of people might invent new words? Is it always to help communication? poets     politicians     scientists     teenagers • Why do you think some words disappear from use? • If you are learning English, do you think it’s OK to create new words? Why? / Why not? • How might knowing how to make new words help you to develop your English? CHALLENGE

Work in groups. How many examples of the six different ways of forming words can you think of? • borrowing • blending • back formation

• compounding • functional shift • acronyms

Unit 7  Outside the box  89

7E  Creative solutions SPEAKING Useful language

1

• In what ways is this class similar to yours? In what ways is it different? • How many ways of improving your learning environment can you think of? Which two ways would make the biggest difference to the teacher and the learners? Why?

Raising concerns I can’t see how that would work. The issue with that is … If we did that, wouldn’t … ? Suggesting a better approach Wouldn’t it be better to … ? If you ask me, I think we should …

Work in groups. Look at the photo and discuss the questions.

 2

Read the situations. As a class, vote to choose the situation you want to resolve. Then work in groups and: 1 discuss what additional facts you would like to find out about the situation. 2 use divergent thinking to make a list of as many different ways of approaching the situation as you can.

Giving reasons That way you could … That allows / enables … If we do that, …

a Your town or city wants to attract more tourists. It is planning to spend a lot of money on advertising, but no decisions have yet been made about how best to sell the town or city − or what kind of advertisements might work best. b This year, a lot less money is going to be available for your school. The school will need to continue offering a great education to students while spending up to 50 percent less. No decisions have yet been made on what changes will need to be made. c Your English class has been given some money to make an app or a website to help current and future students deal with their biggest problems. No decisions have yet been made about what should go on the app or website.  3

Exchange the list you made in Exercise 2 with another group of students. Then use convergent thinking and the expressions in the Useful language box to: • discuss the difficulties there might be with each of the ideas. • decide what the best approach would be – and why.

4

Each group should now choose one person to present their approach to the whole class. Listen to the different approaches and decide who has the best solution.

High school students in a robotics class build a robot to enter a competition.

90  Unit 7  Outside the box

WRITING A report 5

Look at the report on page 152. Identify the two suggestions made by students for reducing external noise in the school library. Can you think of any other possible approaches? a install two sheets of glass in each window to stop 75 percent of the water coming in from outside b install two sheets of glass in 75 percent of the windows to reduce the noise coming in from outside c install two sheets of glass in each window to reduce the noise coming in from outside d fill the space between two sheets of glass with water to reduce the noise by 75 percent

6

WRITING SKILL Cohesion Look at the Writing strategy box. Find examples of the guidance for structuring reports in the model on page 152.

7

Work in pairs. Rewrite the sentences, using the sentence starters in bold. 1 I suppose we could invest in some new, heavier curtains. We m might consider

.

2 It wou would be much better if we moved the library to another room. I wou would strongly recommend

.

Writing strategy Structuring reports Begin with a title to show what the report is about. Make the aim of the report clear in the introduction. The purpose of this report is to … The report will also make recommendations on … Have clear paragraphs and add subheadings to each paragraph. Use full forms (it is, they will, etc.) instead of contractions like it’s and they’ll. Make recommendations. We believe that the best solution to this problem would be to … Perhaps we could also consider … Avoid expressing personal feelings or opinions.

3 Mayb Maybe we could play quiet music to cover the noise from outside. We w would suggest

.

4 If we put more plants in the library, they would stop some of the sound. I prop propose 8

.

Write a short report about the situation your class chose in Exercise 2. • Follow the guidance in the Writing strategy box. • Make your recommendations using some of the language in Exercise 7.

Unit 7 Outside the box

91

8

Common ground

I N t h i s u ni t Y O U •  t alk about interpersonal and intercultural communication •  r ead about four different sub-cultures from around the world •  learn about different ways of tackling discrimination •  w atch a TED Talk about what is meant by ‘normal’ •  write a complaint

92 

8A  Cultural crossings Vocabulary  Identity and communication 1

Work in groups. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. • Could this be a typical scene where you are from? Why? / Why not? • How do you normally greet the people in the box? Does it vary at all? Does everyone in the group greet each other in the same way? Why? / Why not?

A kunik is a traditional Inuit greeting between family members and loved ones.

friends teachers    2

  3

friends’ parents visitors from another country

shop assistants your parents

MY PERSPECTIVE In addition to greetings, are there any rules you think it would be important for a foreign visitor to your country to know? Do you always follow these rules yourself? Complete the sentences with these pairs of words. awkward + compliment conscious + discrimination misunderstanding + sort it out

be offended + hinted discourage + reaction response + negative comments

1 If my friends have a(n) or a big argument, I’m good at . helping them if someone pays me a(n) 2 I usually feel a bit or praises what I’ve done. if someone that I looked older 3 I would than I really am. to things like is to 4 I think the best challenge them. me from doing something, my initial 5 If someone tries to is to want to do it more! of how to avoid and 6 I think I’m quite upsetting people. 4

Work in pairs. Read out the sentences in Exercise 3. Say if they are true or false for you. Explain why.

  5

Complete the collocations with the correct forms based on the word families. 1 pay me a big compliment / me on my work / be very complimentary about it against young people / fight discrimination / 2 discriminatory rules people / a negative /a 3 avoid stereotypical person at what he said / didn’t mean to offend anyone / use 4 took language to questions / an awkward silence / a sense of 5 respond awkwardness in social settings the instructions / a silly misunderstanding 6

6

Choose five of the collocations from Exercise 5. Write example sentences that are true for you. My friends usually compliment me on my sense of style.

Unit 8  Common ground  93

LISTENING   7

grammar  Reported speech

Work as a class. Discuss the questions.

 11

• How might you define intercultural communication? • In what situations is it necessary to be considerate of other cultures?  8

  9

a  I asked a German girl from my class if she the train station. rude.’ b And I thought, ‘That something and c I said I go back to school. d That evening I told my dad what had happened and be so sensitive. he said that I e A Russian friend told me their parents kind of them from smiling at strangers. There a Russian proverb that says, ‘Laughter for no reason is a sign of stupidity’.

making plans trying to get somebody’s attention

Listen to an interview about travel and intercultural communication. What is normal for people from these countries that may be different elsewhere?    37 China        Germany         Russia         USA

 10 According to the conversation, are the sentences

Check your answers on page 142. Do Exercises 1 and 2.  12

true (T), false (F) or not stated (NS)? Listen again and check your answers.    37

1 Stacey’s parents are diplomats. 2 The German girl who Stacey spoke to was deliberately rude to her. 3 If a Russian person smiles at another Russian they don’t know, they may be seen as untrustworthy. 4 Stacey’s Korean friend was confused by people in the USA asking ‘How’re you doing?’ 5 In Chinese, a common greeting can be translated as Have you eaten? 6 Courses on intercultural communication are very effective.

94  Unit 8  Common ground

  37

Reported speech

Work in pairs. What can cause communication to break down in the situations in the box? What might you do if this happens? How could you avoid it? greeting people ordering food

Look at the Grammar box. Try to complete the sentences. Listen again and check your ideas. 

Match the sentences in the Grammar box to these points. 1 The sentence includes the actual words that were spoken or thought. 2 The sentence includes advice or instruction the speaker was given. 3 The sentence includes a question (or plan) about an action in progress at the time. 4 The sentence includes a statement about a previous action and consequence. 5 The sentence includes a statement about something which is still generally true.

 13

Look at sentences a–c in the Grammar box. What happens to the tenses when we report speech? Why?

 14

Complete the responses to the statements that are correcting misunderstandings. 1 A: We’re meeting on Tuesday. on B: Really? I thought you said we Thursday! 2 A: I got a B for the science essay. B: Oh, that’s quite good! I thought you said you a D! 3 A:  I’m interested in seeing the new Star Wars film. B: Really? I’m sure you told me you interested! 4 A: I’ll bring you all the stuff you need next week. it B: You haven’t got it? I thought you today. 5 A: I’m going to my dance class later. dancing. How long B: I didn’t know you have you been doing that? 6 A: We have to leave at 11 o’clock. leave at 12 o’clock. B: I thought we

 15

PRONUNCIATION  Stress for clarification a Work in pairs. Listen to the exchanges from Exercise 14. Notice how we stress the corrections. Then practise the exchanges.    38 b Work in pairs. Take turns saying the sentences. Your partner should respond with something they had misunderstood.

1 Are you coming to my birthday party on Saturday? 2 We went to Mexico on holiday last summer. 3 My mum works in a hospital near here. 4 I can’t stand that band. 5 Sorry, I can’t come out tonight. I have to finish an essay.

 16 Think of two situations when you might hear these

expressions. How might they possibly have different meanings / interpretations?

1 I’ve been waiting here for ages. Someone in a queue advising someone not to wait. S omeone you had arranged to meet being very annoyed because you were late. 2 Don’t be silly! 3 Are you going to eat that? 4 What did you do that for? 5 You’ll be sorry.  17 Use your ideas from Exercise 16 to tell a short story.

Report what was said, how you replied and what you did next. I went to buy tickets for a concert, but when I got to the theatre there was a huge queue. Someone there said they’d been waiting for ages, so I decided to forget it and just went home.

 18 MY PERSPECTIVE

Choose one of these situations. Spend a few minutes planning how to explain what happened. Include some reporting. Then work in pairs. Tell your partner your story. • A compliment someone paid you or you paid someone else • A misunderstanding or argument you once had or saw • A conversation you wish you hadn’t overheard

Is eating with your hands normal where you are from? It is in Ethiopia.

Unit 8  Common ground  95

8B  I am who I am

Reading   4

vocabulary building  Compound adjectives

1 where the sub-culture originated. 2 what members of the sub-culture have in common. 3 what kind of music – if any – is associated with this sub-culture.

Compound adjectives are made up of more than one word. As with single-word adjectives, it is important to learn not only the meanings but also the nouns that they most commonly describe. 1

Match these compound adjectives with their meanings. cost-effective deep-rooted heartbroken highly respected like-minded long-lasting open-minded two-faced well-mannered worldwide   1 sharing tastes, interests and opinions   2 dishonest and not to be trusted   3 admired by lots of people because of qualities or achievements   4 willing to consider new ideas / ways of thinking   5 existing or happening everywhere   6 behaving in a polite way   7 firmly fixed; strong and hard to change   8 providing good value for the amount of money paid   9 continuing for a long period of time 10 extremely sad and upset

  2

Complete the sentences with compound adjectives from Exercise 1. 1 She achieved fame when a video she posted online went viral. 2 Everybody around here knows she does good work. figure. She’s a 3 My little brother was absolutely when his team lost in the final! for there to be 4 The problems are too any real hope of a quick fix. 5 If you only ever spend time talking to people, you don’t get to hear different points of view.

  3

Work in groups. Use five of the adjectives in Exercise 1 to describe people or things from your own experience. My dog died last year, which left me heartbroken. I generally cycle everywhere. It’s the most cost-effective way of getting around.

96  Unit 8  Common ground

Work in pairs. Look at the photo which shows a sub-culture*. Predict:

sub-culture a group of people within a larger cultural group who share the same interests  5

Read the article and find the answers to the questions in Exercise 4 for all of the sub-cultures mentioned.

   6

What reasons for joining sub-cultures are mentioned in the article? What downside is mentioned?

  7

Decide which of the four sub-cultures: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

is more of a virtual than real-world phenomenon. became known worldwide thanks to a music video. is a combination of the ultra-modern and the old. includes members who identify with animals. can trace its origins back the furthest. involves a form of recycling. rejects a common belief about their characteristics. involves regional rivalries.

CRITICal thinking  Understanding other perspectives Learning to think more critically sometimes requires us to suspend our own judgement and instead, to try and see things from other points of view.  8

Work in groups. For each of the four sub-cultures mentioned in the article, decide: 1 2 3 4

hat the appeal might be for those who get involved. w what common ground might exist with other groups. what concerns parents might have. which are common – or have some kind of local equivalents – where you live.

 9

MY PERSPECTIVE

The article is written from the point of view of someone who is not involved in any of the sub-cultures mentioned. Do you think people who are part of the sub-cultures might want to change any of the details? Why?

A place to

be

5

10

15

20

25

30

  39   During adolescence, teenagers start to form independent adult identities of their own, and for many young people around the world, this means experimenting with different social groups. Deciding to join a particular group or sub-culture offers young people the opportunity to explore who they are and what they stand for. It allows them to start defining themselves outside their immediate family circle, and can provide both a sense of identity and of belonging too. In our increasingly interconnected world, membership of particular groups can mean contact not only with other likeminded people locally but also globally. However, while being part of a group can be an extremely positive thing, it can also attract abuse and bullying, especially of those who insist on challenging social norms. Here we look at four of the more remarkable youth cultures out there. Some claim that the roots of Goth can be found in such 19th century literary classics as Dracula and Frankenstein, but the dyed black hair and black clothes, dark eyeliner and fingernails and intense dramatic postpunk music originated in England in the late 1970s. The style and sound have had a long-lasting appeal and nowadays there are large communities of goths everywhere from Chile to China. Many goths resent being stereotyped as sad or angry, and instead see themselves as romantic,

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

A man dancing in a nightclub wears long pointy boots.

75

80

85

creative, open-minded and able to find beauty in what others may see as dark or ugly. Over recent years, a far more localized sub-culture has been developing in Mexico, where a style of music known as Tribal Guarachero has evolved, complete with its own remarkable fashions. More commonly known just as Trival, the hugely popular sound mixes traditional regional folk music with electronic dance. Young fans often identify themselves by combining futuristic elements with a basic farm worker look … and wearing extremely long, pointy boots when dancing, often competitively against groups from other local towns. Believe it or not, some items of footwear have apparently reached one and a half metres in length! Of course, sub-cultures that develop in a particular area can spread like wildfire in a matter of moments these days, thanks to the internet. This is what’s happened with the Scraper Biker sub-culture. Originally the obsession of a small group of young people in the San Francisco Bay area, scraper bikes are simply ordinary bicycles that have been modified by their owners, typically with decorated wheels and bright body colours. Much of the decoration is done very cheaply, using tin foil, reused cardboard, sweet wrappers and paint! The craze went global after a hip-hop video featuring these creations went viral and scraper bikes can now be seen in cities all over the world. If the internet helps some sub-cultures grow, for others it’s their main home. Otherkin – people who identify to some degree as non-human – have a massive online presence that’s growing all the time. While some otherkin believe themselves to actually be, say, dragons or lions or foxes, others simply feel special connections to certain creatures – and have found a space within which to explore these feelings. It seems that, whatever you’re going through and whatever your own personal enthusiasms, there’s a worldwide community out there just waiting for you to find them – and to assure you that you belong!

Unit 8  Common ground  97

8C  Fight for your rights Iceland was the first European country to elect a female president. Vigdis Finnbogadóttir was elected in 1980.

grammar  Patterns after reporting verbs 1

Look at the Grammar box. Match the patterns and sentences (1–6) with the examples (a–f) that have the same pattern. 1 2 3 4 5 6

verb + infinitive (with to) The government intends to introduce new laws to tackle the problem. verb + someone + infinitive (with to) I reminded you all to bring letters of permission from your parents. verb + preposition + -ing They apologized for doing what they did. verb + (that) clause She argued (that) things really need to change. verb + -ing He denied answering the question. verb + someone + (that) clause He promised me (that) he’d never do anything like that again.

Patterns after reporting verbs a Deciding to join a particular group offers young people the opportunity to explore who they are. b Many goths resent being stereotyped as sad or angry. c Some claim that the roots of the goth movement can be found in 19th century literary classics. d There’s a worldwide community out there just waiting to assure you that you belong! e It allows them to start defining themselves outside their immediate family circle. f It can also attract abuse and bullying of those who insist on challenging social norms. Check your answers on page 142. Do Exercises 3–5.   2

Work in pairs. Decide which patterns in Exercise 1 these verbs use. Some verbs use more than one pattern. acknowledge be blamed persuade

agree imagine state

be accused invite suggest

 3

Choose the correct options to complete the paragraph. Many governments have been criticized (1) of / in / for turning a blind eye to racism and some have even been accused (2) of / for / from encouraging it when it suits them. However, the Bolivian government recently announced (3) to launch / launching / that it’s launching an app designed to encourage citizens (4) that they should report / to report / reporting any incidents of racism or discrimination that they encounter. The app is called No Racism. Reports can be submitted 24 hours a day and the government has promised (5) responding / for responding / to respond to all complaints and take legal action, where appropriate.

 4

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. • • • •

98  Unit 8  Common ground

advise convince pretend

How would you expect the No Racism app to work? What other features might it be good to include in the app? How might the data gathered from reports be used to tackle racism in the future? What other ways of tackling racism do you think are effective?

5

6

Complete the report with the correct forms of the verbs. Add prepositions where necessary. It was recently announced that Iceland (1) (be) now the best place in the world to be female. However, young Icelandic women have previous (fight) for their generations to thank (2) rights. On October 24th, 1975, fed up with their status as second-class citizens, 90 percent of all women in the (work). Their goal country refused (3) was to remind men that the success of the nation (depend) women and to urge them (4) (accept) greater equality. They (5) (continue) their general threatened (6) strike until changes were made. Men listened and within five years the country had become the first to elect a female president: Vigdis Finnbogadóttir. Iceland (have) one of the can now claim (7) highest proportions of female politicians – over 40 percent – in Europe. In the spring of 2017, a law was (require) employers to prove passed (8) that their companies are free from gender-based salary discrimination. Work in pairs. Look at the ideas for tackling gender inequality. Discuss: • how they might change things. • which you think are good ideas. Why? • other ways in which things could be improved. a Encourage shops to stop selling toys aimed at either boys or girls b Demand that companies employ an equal number of female and male bosses c Insist on mothers and fathers getting equal amounts of parental leave when they have children d Advise schools to ensure both boys and girls do school subjects such as cooking and woodwork e Force schools to have equal numbers of men and women in photos on the walls f Persuade parents to discuss images of men and women in the media with their children

7

Complete the short news article with the correct forms of these pairs of linked verbs. accuse + discriminate agree + examine decide + make deny + be force + change insist on + have A 13-year-old girl in South Africa has been schools three times because of her (1) her current hair. Zulaikha Patel has (2) school, Pretoria High School for Girls, of against black pupils through its uniform policies that students a ‘neat, (3) conservative appearance’. Angry that this was being interpreted as meaning that she couldn’t wear her hair in her natural afro style, she launched a silent protest, which attracted the attention of the national media. The discriminatory in any way but school (4) its policies before (6) (5) any significant changes. whether or not

8

CHOOSE 1 Think of conversations you have had – or heard – recently. Use some of the reporting verbs from pages 98 and 99 to describe what they were about. 2 Work in pairs. Write a news report about one of these topics. Use at least four reporting verbs. • an incident of discrimination • a protest • a new project that’s trying to change things 3 Work in groups. Tell each other about a time that: • you intended to do something but then didn’t. Explain why you didn’t do it. • you refused to do something. Why? • someone famous was accused of doing something bad. • you had to apologize for doing something. • someone powerful acknowledged they’d done something wrong.

Zulaikha Patel and her classmates are fighting for rights that go beyond the style of their hair. They are standing up against racism.

Unit 8 Common ground

99

8D  Why I keep speaking up, even when people mock my accent

Normal is simply a construction of what we’ve been exposed to, and how visible it is around us.

Safwat Saleem Read about Safwat Saleem and get ready to watch his TED Talk.  

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS

4

Just

Look at the Authentic listening skills box. Listen to these extracts from the TED Talk and add just in the correct place.    40 1 2 3 4 5 6

I had to grunt a lot for that one. I sat there on the computer, hitting ‘refresh’. This was the first of a two-part video. I could not do it. If I stutter along the way, I go back in and fix it. And the year before, that number was about eight percent. 7 Like the colour blue for Ancient Greeks, minorities are not a part of what we consider ‘normal’.    2

Work in pairs. Discuss each meaning of just in Exercise1. Then practise saying the sentences.

Watch  3

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • In what ways do people make fun of others? • In what ways might people react to being made fun of? • Why do you think people make fun of others?

100  Unit 8  Common ground

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?    8.1 1 People have sometimes joked, ‘Have you forgotten your name?’ because of Safwat’s stutter. 2 Safwat is interested in video games. 3 The video Safwat posted only got negative feedback. 4 The negative comments were mainly about Safwat’s stutter. 5 The incident led Safwat to do more voice-overs in order to prove his critics wrong. 6 In the past, Safwat used video and voice-overs to become more confident in speaking. 7 Safwat practised to improve his voice and accent to sound more normal.

Just has several meanings – only, simply, exactly, soon / recently – and is also used to emphasize a statement or soften a request, to make it sound smaller or politer. 1

  8.0

  5

Work as a class. Read the conclusion of Safwat’s talk. Discuss the questions. The Ancient Greeks didn’t just wake up one day and realize that the sky was blue. It took centuries, even, for humans to realize what we had been ignoring for so long. And so we must continuously challenge our notion of ‘normal’, because doing so is going to allow us as a society to finally see the sky for what it is. • How do you think the Ancient Greeks and the colour of the sky might be related to what you have talked about and seen so far? • What do you think Safwat means by ‘the sky’ with regard to society today?

6

Put the sentences in order. The first one is given. Then watch Part 2 of the talk and check your answers.     8.2

1 Few colours are mentioned in ancient literature. Why? a In the same way, narrators with strong accents are not part of people’s ‘normal’. b People discriminate because they don’t ‘see’ or relate to people who are different to themselves. c Should Safwat accept or challenge ideas of normality? d Blue was ‘invisible’ and not part of ancient people’s ‘normal’, unlike red. e Minorities are not part of society’s ‘normal’ like the colour blue wasn’t for the Greeks. f One theory is that colours weren’t named or ‘seen’ until people could make them. g This is why Safwat has gone back to using his voice in his work. h People learn not to relate to minorities because there are few images of minorities in books. i People’s ideas of ‘normal’ can lead to discrimination, such as offering fewer interviews to people with black-sounding names.    7

MY PERSPECTIVE

How do you feel about your own accent in English? Would you like to change it at all? What would be a ‘normal’ accent for you?

8

Vocabulary in Context a Watch the clips from the TED Talk. Choose the correct meanings of the words and phrases.    8.3 b Work in pairs. Tell each other about: • something humorous you have seen or read recently. • a time you felt a bit self-conscious. • a time you took a big step.

CHALLENGE Work in groups. You are going to discuss a video you could make about ONE of these topics. Choose a topic and follow the steps (1–5). • Challenge the idea of what is ‘normal’ • Raise awareness of discrimination • Discourage bullying • Show how different groups share experiences, likes and dreams • Encourage people to do activities with different groups of people 1 Decide on one aspect of the topic to focus on. 2 Think of two or three different messages for the campaign. 3 Brainstorm some ideas to illustrate these messages. 4 Choose the best idea and develop it further. 5 Share your idea with the rest of the class.

Unit 8  Common ground  101

8E  Teenage kicks SPEAKING Useful language Identify yourself As a … / someone who … Speaking as … If you look at it from … point of view … Agree or disagree I totally support it. I’m in favour. I’m (totally) for / against the idea. It’s crazy. I don’t get it.

1

Work in pairs. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. • Where was the photo taken? • What are the people doing? What else might they do? • How do you think others might react to these people? Why?

  2

Listen to five people giving opinions about a policy. What do you think the policy is about?    41

  3

Listen to the five people again. Decide: 

  41

a who is speaking in each case. b if they are for or against the policy – and why.  4

Challenge ideas and assumptions Just because …, (it) doesn’t mean … … are we supposed to …?

Complete the sentences by adding two words in each gap – contractions count as one word. Then listen again and check your answers.    41 1 We’ve lost a bit of stock recently, which I think might be them. go? Or are we just 2 I mean, where else are we to hang out at all? goes there quite a lot, I the idea. 3 As one or two misbehave they all do. 4 , adults shoplift and cause problems too. from my grandpa’s view, 5 If I look I can kind of understand it.

Give examples I mean, …

 5

Work in pairs. Look at the statements. Which ones are normal in your country? Which ones do you agree or disagree with? Why? Use some of the expressions in the Useful language box to discuss them. • • • • • •

6

Teenagers shouldn’t hang out without a responsible adult around. Everyone should wear a school uniform. Boys and girls should be educated separately. Men are better at certain subjects or in certain jobs than women. You can only get a good job if you go to university. Students need to do lots of homework to succeed.

Work in groups. Choose a role. Discuss the statements in Exercise5 in your role. Then think about the statements from a different perspective. businessperson          parent         politician          teacher

Just hanging out?

102  Unit 8  Common ground

WRITING  A complaint    7

8

One of the speakers in Exercise 2 mentioned negative stereotypes about teenagers in the media. What stereotypes do you think you fit? How does that make you feel? Why? Do you think there are any stereotypes in the media about these groups of people? Are they positive, negative or neither? boys businesspeople old people people from your country

  9

girls students

Read the complaint on page 152 and answer the questions. 1 Who is the person writing to and why? 2 How does she feel? Why? 3 What does she want to happen? Why?

 10

WRITING SKILL  Using appropriate tone

Work in pairs. Read the complaint on page 152 again. Discuss the questions. • How far does the writer follow the advice in the Writing strategy box? • What other details could the writer give, if any? • Do you think complaints are worth writing? Why? / Why not?

 11

Writing strategy When we write to complain about something, we: • say what the general problem is in the first sentence. • give details of the problem (including times and examples). • explain more about how the problem has affected us. • ask for some kind of action. • sometimes say what we will do next if we are unsatisfied with the response. The writing is more effective if it: •  is polite. •  is fairly formal. • uses linkers such as however and while.

Work in groups. Think of reports, policies, rules, TV programmes or films you know about. Discuss the questions. • Have you read or seen anything that you thought was untrue, unfair or stereotyped people? • What was the problem? • Who was responsible? • How could it have been changed?

 12

Write a complaint about one of the ideas you discussed in Exercise 11. Follow the structure of the writing model on page 152. Try to use some of the language from this unit.

Unit 8  Common ground  103

 9

Lend a helping hand

I N t h i s u ni t Y O U •  t alk about natural disasters and technology that helps to deal with them •  r ead about how the United Nations gives a voice to young people •  learn about local community action and dealing with crime •  w atch a TED Talk about helping people recover after a disaster •  w rite a letter of application for a voluntary position 104 

9A  In times of crisis Vocabulary  Dealing with disaster 1

Work in pairs. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. • W hat do you think has happened? • What do you think the three main challenges in this area would be at this time? • What would be needed to help people overcome these challenges?

 2

Check you understand these pairs of words. Use a dictionary if necessary. Then complete the series of events following an earthquake. appealed + aid debris + task infrastructure + flee rise + crisis

blocked + supplies earthquake + devastation launched + evacuate shortages + limited

struck coastal areas just after midnight and caused 1 The . widespread was damaged or destroyed, and thousands of 2 Much of the the worst-affected areas. people started to , it became clear 3 As the number of injuries continued to was starting to unfold. that a humanitarian and a amount of clean 4 There were food drinking water. to the international community for 5 The government . so they had to use helicopters to drop 6 The roads were to people. a relief effort and started to people 7 They from the disaster zones. and started the huge 8 They finally managed to clear the of rebuilding.   3

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4

Think about a natural disaster you know about and prepare to discuss it. Write notes on: • • • • •

  5

In addition to earthquakes, what else can cause widespread devastation? What kind of systems form the infrastructure of a town or city? What else might there be shortages of after a disaster? What else might rise after a natural disaster? What kind of aid can the international community provide in crises? How is debris usually cleared? How are people usually evacuated from disaster zones? What other reasons are there that roads may be blocked?

what happened, where and when. the immediate impact of the disaster. the relief effort involved – and how effective it was. the biggest challenges. any positive developments that came out of the disaster.

Work in groups. Discuss your notes from Exercise 4. Try to use some of the language in Exercise 2.

Rescuers evacuate local people from their homes in China. Unit 9  Lend a helping hand  105

When a powerful earthquake struck Nepal in 2015, Patrick Maier’s team used drones to take photos of the affected areas.

LISTENING 6

 10 Patrick Maier calls the work he does crisis mapping.

Over recent years, crisis mappers have started using more technological tools in their work. How might these tools be useful to them? Can you think of anything else that might help?

Listen to the first part of a radio programme. Find out:    42 1 what the disaster was, where it happened and when. 2 what the impact of the disaster was.

  7

3D modelling technology artificial intelligence drones GPS hashtags satellites

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. • Had you heard about the disaster described in Exercise 6 before? Do you know anything more about it and how the country is now? • How do you think social media, maps and photographs, such as the one above, could help in this situation?

8

Listen to the second part of the radio programme about how Patrick Maier first used an online mapping technology called Ushahidi in Haiti. Answer the questions.    43 1 How did he get information to update the online maps on Ushahidi? 2 How did this information help the people affected by the disaster? 3 How else has Ushahidi helped people elsewhere in the world?

 9

Work in pairs. Try to remember what was said about the following. Then listen again and check your ideas.    43 1 2 3 4

Christine Martin Kenya Haitian roots one million

106  Unit 9  Lend a helping hand

5 6 7 8

helicopters world attention Russia a smartphone

Hashtags might be useful for crisis mappers because they can use social media to see where the most requests for aid are coming from.

grammar  Relative clauses  11

Look at the sentences in the Grammar box. Answer the questions. 1 What are the relative pronouns in each sentence? 2 When do you think each one is used? 3 Defining relative clauses qualify nouns and tell us exactly which thing, person or place is being referred to. Which sentences include them? 4 What is the difference between the defining relative clauses in the sentences you just identified and the others? 5 In which sentence can the relative pronoun be left out? Why? 6 Look at sentence d. Where does the preposition go in relation to the verb? How else could you write this clause?

Relative clauses a The earthquake that struck Haiti measured seven on the Richter scale*. b The devastation which it caused was simply staggering! c The country, which has long been one of the poorest in the world, struggled to cope. d The seaport, which supplies would normally have been delivered to, was also unusable. e Watching all of this in his Boston home was Patrick Maier, who decided that he had to do something to help. f Maier, whose girlfriend was doing research in Haiti at the time, came up with the idea of using technology to create an interactive online map. g He was having to reach out for volunteers, many of whom had Haitian roots and were only too happy to help. h Helicopters were able to drop tents and food to desperate people whose homes had been destroyed and evacuate people who were trapped or injured.

husbands and fathers had been killed or imprisoned. Nobody had anything (6) they could sell, and men with weapons wandered the land, taking whatever they wanted. How was the task of rebuilding achieved? Well, most importantly, Harry Truman, (7) was then President of the United States, put into place were intended to help all systems (8) states regarded as allies. In 1947, the US Secretary of State name was General George Marshall, (9) given to the plan, announced massive amounts of aid for war-torn countries, much of which was to be used for reconstruction. The Marshall Plan ran for over ten years and paid for the rebuilding of infrastructure (10) provided employment and sped up the return of normal life.  13

1 Crisis mapping has been used in many countries. 2 At 4:35 a.m. local time, the hurricane hit the coastal town. 3 The International Red Cross and Red Crescent have over 50 million volunteers. 4 Donations have now topped ten million dollars. 5 People are taking shelter in the local school.

Richter scale a scale for measuring the size of an earthquake Check your answers on page 144. Do Exercises 1 and 2.  12

Complete the summary with a relative pronoun in each gap. Can any of the gaps contain a different word or be left blank? If so, which ones? Explain your choices. The year 1945 was an important one for Europe. Some the modern people see it as the date (1) world started. Europe was in a mess, the kind of mess is almost impossible for people today to (2) imagine. Six years of war had devastated the continent. Tens of millions had died; millions more had been forced they had to move from the places (3) previously lived – and life was unbelievably hard for had survived. The majority of the those (4) survivors were women and children (5)

Work in pairs. Add relative clauses to the sentences.

 14

MY PERSPECTIVE

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. • Have any disasters affected your country? In what way? • Did there need to be any rebuilding after the disaster(s)? How was this done?

Unit 9  Lend a helping hand  107

9B  Future leaders

Shouting out

At the UN Youth Assembly, young people discuss UN policies from a youth perspective.

for the young

VOCABULARY BUILDING the + adjective We sometimes talk generally about groups of people using the + adjective.

Reading   3

• Who do you think the people are? • Would you like to take part in something like this? • Do you think young people can change policies in these areas? Why? / Why not?

These days, the young face many challenges that didn’t exist in the past. 1

Work in pairs. Discuss whether you agree or disagree with the sentences. • The old need to listen to the young more. • There is one set of rules for the rich and another for the poor. • The loud and outgoing get too much attention. • Only the brave or the stupid would believe they could change the world. • Only the best get to the top.

 2

Write your own sentence starting Only the. Then share your idea with the class and discuss what it means.

108  Unit 9  Lend a helping hand

Look at the photo and discuss the questions.

the world

your country

your school

your town

 4

Read the article quickly. Write a one-sentence summary. Then work in pairs and discuss your summaries.

  5

Read the article again. Find: 1 2 3 4 5 6

someone who started a trend. an organization that provides aid. someone who created a record. someone who showed determination. someone who founded an organization. a country which has changed a law to benefit children.

  44   Almost half of the world’s seven billion citizens are under the age of 25, and they have huge potential to shape the countries they live in. A few countries, such as Argentina, have tried to empower their youth by giving them the right to vote at the age of 16, but it still seems that in many places young people’s opinions are often overlooked or simply not heard. However, one organization that has a long history of giving a voice to young people is the United Nations (UN).

5

In 1946, the UN created a fund called UNICEF to support the millions of children affected by World War II thanks to the leadership of the Polish medical scientist Ludwik Rajchman. The fund distributed aid without discrimination because, as its director Maurice Pate said, ‘There are no enemy children.’ One of those helped by the fund was seven-year-old Dzitka Samkova from Czechoslovakia, as it was known then. She painted a picture of five dancing girls as a thank you and it was turned into a greeting card, the first of many such cards sold to raise money for millions more children.

10

15

20

Having campaigned on behalf of young people, UNICEF also had a key part in the creation of the UN’s Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1989, now signed by more countries than any other convention. The 54 articles of the CRC declare different rights connected to housing, health, the economy, culture and politics, including such things as the right to a safe home, the right to play and rest and a child’s right to choose their own friends.

25

7 an online initiative that brings together politically active people. 8 a place where young people help to decide how things are done in the world. 9 a document that states the rights of children. 6

In your opinion, how influential were these people from the article? Put them in order from most influential to least influential. Then work in small groups. Compare your answers and discuss your choices. Ahmad Alhendawi Ludwik Rajchman Nicol Perez

Dzitka Samkova Maurice Pate Voices of Youth bloggers

Critical thinking  Detecting bias Even though articles give a lot of factual details, the way that the arguments are organized and the vocabulary that is used can show if the writer has an underlying opinion.

30

35

40

45

50

55

In recent years, the UN has opened up new ways to address Article 12 of the CRC, which states that children have the right to give their views, and for adults to listen and take them seriously. UNICEF’s Voices of Youth website brings together young bloggers and activists working on development issues to share their ideas and successful projects for change in a huge range of countries from Sierra Leone to the Philippines. Using online discussion boards as a ‘meeting place’, the initiative provides a space for youngsters who care. The UN also established the Youth Assembly in 2002 and a network of Youth Observers. Since starting, the assembly has brought around 20,000 people between the ages of 16 and 28 from over 100 countries to its headquarters in New York. Through workshops, panel discussions and networking events, these young people discuss UN policies from a youth perspective. The assembly also helps to build friendships across different cultures and give political experience to those who can bring change for children. One of its graduates, Ahmad Alhendawi of Jordan, became the UN Secretary General’s first ever representative for youth and the youngest ever senior official in the UN. Of course, the Youth Assembly and its delegates are only a tiny number of those three and a half billion young people, but they are important role models. It can be easy to find reasons not to act, but as Nicol Perez, a youth observer to the UN General Assembly says, ‘I have a voice, and I’m going to use it. I’m going to shout it out till somebody hears me.’

  7

What do you think the author’s general opinion is about the UN and young people? Why?

8

Identify the words and phrases in the opening paragraph which reveal the author’s opinion. How does the structure of the paragraph reinforce these opinions?

 9

Rewrite the first paragraph so that it is neutral. Change words and the structure of the paragraph. Remove words or phrases as necessary.

 10

Work in groups. Discuss ideas you have to achieve these UN 2030 goals. Then share your ideas as a class. • End poverty in all its forms everywhere • Ensure inclusivity and equality for all and promote lifelong learning • Achieve gender equality • Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Unit 9  Lend a helping hand  109

Malala Yousafzai is a young activist for female education who spoke at the United Nations on her 16th birthday.

9C Community service GRAMMAR Participle clauses 1

Identify all the relative clauses in a–c that are correct and could have the same meaning as the corresponding reduced clause in the Grammar box. 1 The UN created a fund a who is called UNICEF. b which was called UNICEF. c that is called UNICEF. 2 The fund supported millions of children a who were affected by World War II. b which affected World War II. c that had been affected by World War II. 3 The CRC declares different rights a where connected to housing, health, the economy and politics. b which the UN connected to housing, health, the economy and politics. c which are connected to housing, health, the economy and politics. 4 The CRC declares different rights a which include such things as the right to a safe home. b that are included such things as the right to a safe home. c that include such things as the right to a safe home. 5 The Voices of Youth website brings together young bloggers and activists a who work on development issues. b who have been working on development issues. c that are working on development issues. Reduced relative clauses a In 1946, the UN created a fund (1) called UNICEF to support the millions of children (2) affected by World War II. b The 54 articles of the CRC declare different rights (3) connected to housing, health, the economy, culture and politics, (4) including such things as the right to a safe home and the right to play. c The Voices of Youth website brings together young bloggers and activists (5) working on development issues to share their ideas.

2

When do we use an -ing participle and when do we use an -ed participle to shorten a relative clause?

Check your answers on page 144. Do Exercise 3. 3

110

Unit 9 Lend a helping hand

Read about some research findings and projects available to young people. Complete the article with the correct participle of each verb. Research has found that the number of young people (1) (involve) in dangerous behaviour has fallen greatly over recent years and youths are actually far more likely to be victims of crime rather than criminals. Yet most people think that the amount of youth crime and antisocial behaviour is getting worse. The suggestion is that this may be because (misbehave), media reports still focus on youngsters (2) (ignore) the many community projects (3) (reduce) crime. These community projects involve (4) (set up) for teenagers to meet such things as cafés (5) (teach) teens about after school, community gardens (6) (design) by young sustainability and a ‘time bank’ (7) (allow) them to earn rewards for doing people (8) voluntary work.

4

handed them over and he cycled off. (4) Got / Having got home, I told my mum what had happened and we reported the incident to the police.

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Do you think the research explained in Exercise 3 would produce similar results in your country? Why? / Why not? • How are community projects successful in reducing crime and anti-social behaviour?

  5

A week or so later, (5) arresting / having arrested someone, the police asked us to go and see if we could identify him. Unfortunately, it wasn’t the man who had robbed us and we left a bit frustrated. But then, two days later, my friend’s mum got a WhatsApp message from my friend’s stolen phone! The robber had actually sent her a message, (6) thinking / thought it was his own mum – and he had his picture on the account he was using!

PRONUNCIATION  -ing forms a Listen to the statements. Note the pronunciation of the /ŋ/ sound.    45 b Practise repeating the statements.    45 Adverbial participle clauses

Even after (7) having seen / seeing the evidence against him, the robber still tried to tell the police he was innocent! I think he was hoping we wouldn’t go to court, but (8) faced / facing with us actually giving evidence, he changed his mind and pleaded guilty.

a Having campaigned on behalf of young people, UNICEF also had a key part in the creation of the UN’s Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1989. b  Using online discussion boards as a ‘meeting place’, the initiative provides a space for youngsters who care. 6

Decide if the participle clauses in Exercise 7 add information about time or reason / method. Can you rewrite them with words like because, after, while, etc.?

9

MY PERSPECTIVE

Look at the sentences in the Grammar box. Choose the correct options to complete the rules. 1 The subject of the participle clause is the same as / different from the subject of the verb in the main clause. 2 The present participle (Using) shows the action happened at the same time as / before the action in the main clause. 3 A perfect participle (Having campaigned) shows the action happened at the same time as / before the action in the main clause.

Check your answers on page 144. Do Exercise 4.   7

8

Complete this story about a foolish criminal by choosing the correct participles. (1) Having walking / Walking home from school one day with a friend, we came across a man on his bike. He started asking us where we were going and what phones we had. We just ignored him, but then he blocked us off, (2) shouted / shouting at us to give him our phones. (3) Not wanting / Wanting to get into a fight, we just

What other stories about failed crimes or foolish criminals have you heard?  10 CHOOSE

1 On your own, write a story about a failed crime or a foolish criminal. 2 Work in pairs. Think of six different ways you could promote young people and their issues. 3 Work in pairs. Using participle clauses, describe four other trends using similar patterns to the examples in Exercise 5. Then compare with another pair of students and discuss why they are happening. The number of young people taking up sport has fallen a lot.

Young people volunteer to serve food to less fortunate people in their community.

Unit 9  Lend a helping hand  111

9D  (Re)touching lives through photos

We take photos constantly. A photo is a reminder of someone or something, a place, a relationship, a loved one.

BECCI MANSON Read about Becci Manson and get ready to watch her TED Talk.  

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS

4

Intonation and completing a point

1

Look at the Authentic listening skills box. Then listen to Becci. Practise saying the extract yourself.     46

 5

A photo is a reminder of someone or something, a

would grab and the first thing you’d go back to look for.  2

Decide where you might use a rising intonation and where you might use a falling intonation in these extracts from the TED Talk. Practise saying them. 1 We make skinny models skinnier, perfect skin more perfect, and the impossible possible. 2 We pulled debris from canals and ditches. We cleaned schools. We de-mudded and gutted homes.

Watch  3

Work in groups. Tell each other about – and show each other, if you can – photos that remind you of special people, places or times in your life.

112  Unit 9  Lend a helping hand

makes a joke about her profession. defends her profession. gives an example of an unpleasant job she did. had an initial moment of realization. felt a sense of pride. had a positive reaction from her contacts.

Work in pairs. Tell each other about: • things you’ve lost or broken and wish you still had. • things you’re good at repairing.

place, a relationship, a loved one . They’re our memory-keepers and our histories, the last thing we

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Find an example of where Becci:    9.1 1 2 3 4 5 6

We often use a rising intonation to show we are going to add an idea and a falling intonation to show that our point is complete. This pattern is common in lists and contrasts.

  9.0

6

Watch Part 2 of the talk. Are these statements true (T), false (F) or not stated (NS)?    9.2 1 The little girl in the first photo didn’t survive the tsunami. 2 Before long, Becci and her team were scanning photos every other day. 3 Some of the people who brought photos were unfamiliar with the technology Becci was using. 4 The kimono in the photo took months to retouch. 5 Photos would only get retouched once their owners had come forward. 6 The lady who brought the family portraits already had extra copies. 7 Both of the lady’s children were caught in the waves when the tsunami reached land. 8 All of the photos Becci and her team retouched were returned to their owners. 9 Becci and her team needed new printers.

  7

MY PERSPECTIVE

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Why do you think the response to Becci’s request for help on social media was so high? • What other causes do you think might receive a high response on social media? Why?

8

Watch Part 3 of the talk. Which sentence is the best summary of the main point Becci makes?    9.3 a Everyone loves taking photos. b Photographs are the most important things most people own. c Both survivors and volunteers involved in the project benefited in a major way. d Without photos, we wouldn’t be able to remember our past that well.

 9

Work in pairs. Discuss which of these statements you think are lessons from the talk. Do you agree with them? 1 Our differences matter, but our common humanity matters more. 2 In times of crisis, individuals can make a difference in ways that governments cannot. 3 We don’t think enough about the psychological and emotional side of recovery after disasters. 4 It’s important to feel that the work you do has a positive impact on society. 5 Some people volunteer because they feel guilty about how lucky they’ve been. 6 Countries shouldn’t be expected to deal with largescale disasters on their own.

 10 Vocabulary in Context

a Watch the clips from the TED Talk. Choose the correct meanings of the words and phrases.    9.4 b Work in pairs. Tell each other about: • a film, book, photo or piece of art that struck a chord with you. • three places around the globe you’d love to visit. • a time when you decided to give something new a go. • a time you remember watching a major news story unfold. CHALLENGE Work in groups. Look at the situations (1–3). Thinking about both the immediate and the longer-term future, list what you think are the most important things that could be done in each situation by: • the local government. • other governments around the world. • NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations). • volunteers on the ground. • individuals in other places around the world. • you. 1 A remote Pacific island has been hit very badly by flooding caused by global warming. Whole villages have been washed away and land has been lost to the sea. 2 A humanitarian crisis is developing in a country that has been devastated. There’s a shortage of food and medicine, with children and old people being particularly at risk. 3 A big fire has destroyed dozens of homes in a town near you, leaving over a hundred people homeless and causing serious environmental damage. Unit 9  Lend a helping hand  113

9E  Give it a go SPEAKING Useful language Countering possible opposition Now, I know what you might be thinking. I realize there’s a perception that … I’m obviously not denying that … Listing To begin with, consider the fact that … On top of that, … Let’s not forget that … And finally, it’s important to note that …

1

Work in pairs. Look at these jobs. Discuss how they might be useful in a crisis or disaster. How might they generally be good for society? actor computer programmer politician

 2

banker cosmetic surgeon street cleaner

chemistry teacher photo retoucher

Work in pairs. Discuss which job in Exercise 1 you think each sentence describes. Do you agree? 1 They are often criticized for creating false images, but they can also help restore things which are very precious to people. 2 Some people say they’re only motivated by greed and self-interest, but they generate jobs, and business couldn’t work without them. 3 Without them, we’d be surrounded by piles of litter and dirt. 4 They may lack practical skills, but they can bring a huge amount of joy to millions of people and that’s priceless. 5 They can transform the lives of people who have been injured. 6 They are fundamental to the technological world. 7 Yes, they can be corrupt and lie, but they can also be a huge force for good. 8 They don’t just have knowledge, they have the ability to pass it on.

 3

Listen to a student explaining a job she thinks is important for society. Answer the questions.    47 1 What job is she talking about? 2 What reasons does she give?

4

Work in pairs. Answer the questions. 1 What did the student mention before listing positive aspects of the job? Why? 2 Which aspects of her argument do you agree and disagree with? Explain why.

 5

After an oil spill, people volunteer to help with the clean-up operation which can involve helping wildlife.

114  Unit 9  Lend a helping hand

Work in groups. Discuss which person / job in Exercise 1 is best suited to help in a crisis. Follow these steps. 1 Give each person in the group a job to defend. 2 Spend some time preparing what you’ll say. Use the Useful language box to help you. 3 Take turns presenting your arguments. 4 Discuss who is the best person to help in the crisis. 5 Vote to choose the best person / job.

WRITING  A letter of application 6

Read the advertisement. Discuss the questions.

Spend your winter holidays this year doing something different. We’re looking for volunteers aged between 16 and 21 to rebuild a school in Belize that was destroyed in a hurricane last year. You will learn traditional building methods to provide a great space where learning can take place. For more details, write and tell us who you are and what you would bring to the project. • • • • •   7

What do you think daily life for volunteers on this project would involve? What problems might they face? What kind of skills do you think would be required to do this work? How do you think any volunteers who take part might benefit? Would you be interested in doing something like this? Why? / Why not?

Useful language Introducing subjects that you want to discuss In terms of my experience, I have … As regards / With regard to qualifications, I have … As far as language skills go, I can … Explaining your suitability I feel I would be suitable because … I’m prepared to … I feel confident that I’d be able to …

WRITING skill  Structuring an application If you were writing in response to an advertisement, decide in which order you would write these features. Compare your ideas with a partner.

a Refer to the advert that you saw d Outline your plans for the future b List the skills and abilities you have e Explain why you are writing c Describe who you are and where you are from 8

Work in pairs. Read the letter of application on page 153 and check which order the writer chose. Do you think this person would be a suitable volunteer? Why? / Why not?

 9

Complete the sentences by adding the correct prepositions from the letter. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

 10

I’m writing response to your recent letter. the post. Please send me more information how to apply. Please send details my last year of high school. I’m currently terms of my experience, I have a part-time job. addition, I have experience working with animals. the post. I feel that I would be suitable hearing from you soon. I look forward

Look at the advertisement. List the skills and abilities you have that might make you a suitable volunteer.

Spend your summer in Mexico helping to preserve some of the world’s most endangered species by participating in wildlife volunteer projects. Depending on where you’re placed, you may care for animals, conduct research or help in community programmes. You may also be asked to teach basic English to local guides. You may find yourself working with dolphins or even jaguars. Contact us for details and to let us know why you’d be a great fit for our team.  11

Write a letter of application in response to the advertisement in Exercise 10. Use the Useful language box to help you.

Unit 9  Lend a helping hand  115

10

Life changing

I N t h i s u ni t Y O U •  t alk about recovering from illnesses and accidents •  read about the fight against superbugs •  learn how medical advances have changed lives •  w atch a TED Talk about redefining yourself after a life-changing moment •  w rite a story about overcoming something 116 

The da Vinci surgical system allows surgeons to carry out difficult procedures from a console.

10A  Road to recovery Vocabulary  Illness and injury 1

Work in pairs. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. • What do you think is happening? • What do you think has happened to the patient? • How might an operation like this have been carried out in the past?

  2

Complete the sentences with the words in bold. 1 action / fitness / leg I slipped on the stairs and broke my leg, so I was out of action for a while, but I’m back to full fitness now. 2 cure / drugs / symptoms There’s no for it, but she takes to control the and she leads a fairly normal life. 3 injury / operation / physiotherapy It was quite a serious wrist, but thanks to the and all the I had, it’s almost as good as new. 4 detected / made / spread Luckily, they the cancer early before it to his lungs and he a full recovery. 5 bleeding / damage / intensive care They managed to stop the, but he was then in for days. Thankfully, it didn’t leave any permanent brain. 6 normal / therapy / stroke He couldn’t really speak after the, but he had a lot of speech and he’s more or less back to now. 7 lost / think / trapped I the tip of my finger after I it in a car door. To be honest, I hardly about it now. 8 car crash / waist / wheelchair He started playing basketball after he was left paralyzed from the down in a. 9 antibiotics / chest / prescribed She said I just had a infection and nothing life-threatening! She me some and it cleared up after a week. 10 feel / had / keep down I an upset stomach and I could hardly any food. It was horrible, but I a lot better now.

  3

Work in groups. Look at your completed sentences in Exercise 2. Find: 1 2 3 4

 4

eight parts of the body. at least five nouns that are medical problems. four adjectives describing illnesses or injuries. at least five phrases which show that someone has recovered from an illness or injury.

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • • • •

Have you ever broken any bones? What happened? When was the last time you had a day off school due to illness? Why? What do you do to recover from illness? Are you a good patient? What stories have you heard of people recovering from illnesses or injuries? What happened?

Unit 10  Life changing  117

LISTENING   5

Listen to Jaime and Clara talking about films. Answer the questions.    48

      8

Think again about what you do when you are recovering from something. Discuss the questions.

• Would these stories inspire you to act differently? Why? / Why not? • What things might you do to overcome any challenges you face?

1 What four films do they talk about? 2 What is the connection between the films? 3 What doubts do they have about recommending the first three films? 6

Work in pairs. Complete each sentence with three words. Listen again and check your answers.    48 1 He was in the and no-one could help because he hadn’t told anyone where he was going. 2 It is horrible, but they managed to film it in a way . which isn’t 3 It’s the same with that film about the guy who had a stroke and was left completely paralyzed and . 4 It’s based on his book which he actually by only moving his eye. 5 Yeah, it is incredible, but sorry, the movie didn’t me. 6 This is about Frida Kahlo, the Mexican artist who all her life after a terrible bus accident. 7 A: I guess it depends if you’re into art. then. B: It’s 8 His first job is with a teenage boy who has a disease a that weakens his muscles and has wheelchair. of his life. In fact, they 9 He learns to both do.

  7

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

MY PERSPECTIVE

grammar  Expressing past ability       9

Look at the sentences in the Grammar box. Answer the questions. 1 What forms of the verb follow could, manage, able and succeed in? 2 How do you make negatives in the past with could, able and manage? 3 Which sentences describe a general ability / inability? 4 Which sentences describe success in a task in the past? Expressing past ability a He couldn’t move his arm. b No-one could help. c She managed to deal with that pain in the end and was able to turn it into incredible art. d She succeeded in becoming a world-renowned artist. e He was unable to speak. f They weren’t able to do anything about it. g I didn’t manage to see it when it was on at the cinema.

Check your answers on page 146. Do Exercises 1–3.

• Have you seen any of the films Jaime and Clara talked about? If yes, what did you think of them? If no, would you like to see them? Why? / Why not? • Can you think of any other films that could fit the same category as those discussed? Are they based on true stories? What happened? Frida Kahlo managed to deal with her pain and turn it into art that is admired by people all around the world.

118  Unit 10  Life changing

10

Work in pairs. Choose the sentence endings that are correct. Explain those that are incorrect. 1 After I recovered from the illness, a I could see perfectly well in front of me, but I couldn’t see anything to the side b I was able to see perfectly well in front of me, but I wasn’t able to see anything to the side c I managed to see things perfectly well in front of me, but I didn’t succeed to see anything to the side

12

able 13

Although his mind was working perfectly, his thoughts were locked inside him. He (1) couldn’t move a muscle in his body. He (2) couldn’t make a sound or even see clearly. So how did the ex-actor and magazine editor Jean-Dominique Bauby write a whole book? Well, first the nurses started communicating with him by asking a question and saying ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Bauby (3) was able to indicate his answer by using the only part of his body he (4) could move – his left eye. Then his speech therapist invented a way of arranging the alphabet in the order of the most frequent letters in French. She pointed to each letter and Bauby blinked at the correct one so (5) she was able to spell the word. Claude Mendible, an editor, then took up the job of writing with Bauby. Together, they (6) managed to complete a 120-page book about Jean-Dominique’s life and his experience of ‘locked in’ syndrome. After its publication, Bauby’s memoir became a bestseller.

managed

succeeded

unable

PRONUNCIATION Stress on auxiliaries

49 a Listen and repeat the sentences. b Complete these sentences with your own ideas. Then work in pairs. Practise saying the sentences. Give extra stress to the verbs be or have in the first part of each sentence.

3 He wrote a book about his experiences a and managed to get it published b and succeeded in getting it published c and could get it published Discuss how you think the paralyzed man Clara and Jaime talk about, managed to dictate his book. Then read the summary and find out what happened.

could

We sometimes add stress to the verbs be or have when we want to emphasize that something is true – especially when clarifying or contrasting with another viewpoint.

2 Following the accident, a she couldn’t walk to begin with, but she could learn again since then b she was unable to walk to begin with, but she’s been able to learn again since then c she wasn’t able to walk, but she’s managed to learn again since then

11

Rewrite the italics in Exercise 11 using these words at least once.

. It is an amazing story, but . I have heard of the story, but . I am happy to be here. It’s just I have thought about going to the doctor’s. . It’s just . 5 It was a difficult situation, but

1 2 3 4

14

Work in pairs. Think of an inspiring story about someone who survived an accident or managed to deal with an illness. Spend a few minutes preparing the story. Think about: • • • • •

15

who it happened to and how old they were. how the accident happened or the person got ill. what the consequences were. how they survived and recovered. what the lessons from the story are.

Tell your stories you came up with in Exercise 14 to each other in groups or as a class.

Unit 10 Life changing

119

10B  The battle against bacteria VOCABULARY BUILDING  Dependent prepositions

 5

a Aeroplane cabins provide perfect conditions for bacteria to multiply. b New forms of old diseases are now proving fatal. c The WHO doubts that the worst-case scenario will happen. d The possibility of resistant bacteria has been known since the early days of antibiotics. e Technology is contributing to the overuse of antibiotics. f Agricultural uses of antibiotics increase the likelihood that deadly superbugs will develop. g Hosam Zowawi is developing a way of treating bacterial infections faster. h The slower the recognition of resistant bacteria, the greater the risk of superbugs spreading. i It’s now illegal for farmers in the Netherlands to use antibiotics on animals. j Investment in infrastructure will help to limit the spread of superbugs.

Certain verbs, adjectives and nouns are often followed by specific prepositions, which we call dependent because their choice depends on the particular word and its meaning. There are no fixed rules about which dependent prepositions go with which words, so it is important to pay attention to them as you learn them. She was diagnosed with a rare eye disease. I’m allergic to nuts. The drug offers at least some protection from disease. 1

Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 I would love it if more time was devoted physical education at school. living on my 2 I would be very capable own on a desert island. 3 Most fast-food advertising is aimed children. far too much air 4 We’re all exposed pollution. health 5 A lot is done to raise awareness issues – especially among young people. health care has to be a 6 Any investment good thing. living until I 7 I think I have a good chance am 100 years old. 8 It’s natural for people to be resistant change. 9 I can’t remember the last time I needed a prescription anything.

  2

Work in pairs. Do you agree or disagree with the sentences in Exercise 1? Why?

Reading  3

Work in groups. Look at the title of the article you are going to read. Then discuss: • how you think some of the words in bold in Exercise 1 might be connected to the story. • what if anything, you know about the discovery of antibiotics. • why antibiotics are important and how you think they may have changed medicine. • what you think antibiotics are generally used for. • what the ‘apocalypse’ in the title might refer to – and how it might be avoided.

 4

Read the article. Find out what the ‘antibiotic apocalypse’ is and how it can be avoided.

120  Unit 10  Life changing

Read the article again. Decide which of the points below are not made.

 6

MY PERSPECTIVE  Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

• Had you heard about the battle against bacteria before? If yes, did you learn anything new? • How does the article make you feel? Scared? Optimistic? Determined to change things? Or something else? Why? • How much health education is there in your community? What form does it take? • Are there any health campaigns you know about at the moment? What are they for?

Critical thinking  Thinking through the consequences The consequences of an action are the results or effects that the action produces. One element of reading critically is being able to see possible consequences of actions mentioned in a text.   7

Work in groups. How many possible consequences of these actions can you think of? 1 Drug-resistant diseases spread as a result of international air travel 2 Antibiotics can no longer be used in hospitals 3 Online sites selling antibiotics are closed down 4 The use of antibiotics in farming is banned 5 The government decides to massively increase investment in medical research

Avoiding the antibiotic

apocalypse   50   This may sound like the stuff of nightmares

5

10

15

20

25

30

or of terrifying science-fiction movies but, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the threat of an ‘antibiotic apocalypse’ is very real and many experts fear that it’s only a matter of time before we see the emergence of a superbug – a very powerful type of bacteria that normal drugs cannot kill – capable of wiping out huge numbers of people. Perhaps most disturbing of all is the fact that this potential disaster has been predicted for many decades. In fact, the earliest warnings came from Sir Alexander Fleming, the Scottish doctor and bacteriologist who in 1928 discovered the world’s first antibiotic substance – penicillin. Like many ground-breaking scientific finds, the discovery of penicillin was largely accidental. Its importance wasn’t realized for at least another ten years and mass production didn’t start until the 1940s. However, there’s no doubting the fact that it changed medical practices beyond all recognition. Infections that had previously been fatal were now treatable. In the speech he made when accepting the Nobel Prize for his work, Fleming warned that bacteria could easily become resistant to antibiotics if regularly exposed to concentrations insufficient to kill them. He went on to express his fears that penicillin would end up being so widely used that such changes were inevitable. Worryingly, this is precisely what happened!

35

40

45

50

55

60

Antibiotics are now regularly prescribed for such non-life-threatening illnesses as sore throats, colds and ear infections and, if doctors refuse their requests, many patients turn to the internet for their desired medication. On top of this, a large percentage of all antibiotics sold are now being used in farming. They are, for instance, often given to healthy animals to ensure rapid weight gain. Given all of this, it’s no surprise that more and more bacteria are evolving a resistance.

One man determined to overcome this challenge is the Saudi microbiologist Hosam Zowawi, who has devoted a considerable portion of his time to developing a test that’s able to identify bacteria in hours rather than days, allowing doctors to act more quickly and efficiently, and slowing the potential spread of any deadly infections. Zowawi is also very actively involved in campaigns designed to raise public awareness of the risks of antibiotic overuse. In addition to reducing the use of antibiotics, there are many other ways that the situation is now being addressed. For instance, in the Netherlands, the government has started putting pressure on farmers to reduce the amount of antibiotics given to animals. Elsewhere, there’s a growing understanding of the need to address the underlying conditions that allow new diseases to spread, which, in turn, leads to better rubbish collection, better drainage and better housing. Finally, we’re starting to see increased investment in research aimed at finding the new antibiotics that could be the penicillin of tomorrow.

E. coli infections make up a large percentage of antibiotic-resistant infections.

Unit 10  Life changing  121

New technology is helping people to recover their sight and see for the first time.

10C  Medical advances 1

Work in groups. The photos show different ways that technology is helping to improve vision. Discuss what you think each photo shows and how it might work.

  2

Listen to an extract from a radio programme. Find out: 

  51

1 which of the photos is being discussed. 2 if the technology is expensive.  3

Work in pairs. Explain how the technology works using these words. Listen again and check your answers.    51 camera          cells          chip          electrical signals

 4

MY PERSPECTIVE Work in pairs. Think of as many different ways to fund medical research and treatments as you can. Then discuss these questions with another pair of students. • What is the best way to fund medical research and treatment? • How might a health service decide whether a treatment is too expensive? • How might a health service decide between two very expensive treatments?

GRAMMAR  Emphatic structures   5

As well as using pronunciation to add emphasis, we can also use grammar. Look at the Grammar box and answer the questions. 1 How is emphasis added in sentences a and b? 2 What adverbs are used in sentences c and d to introduce the point being emphasized? 3 What happens to the order of the words that follow these adverbs? Emphatic structures a While surgical options did exist before, none were nearly as effective. b While each bionic eye does cost a lot, reports from users have been incredibly positive. c We’re all used to hearing news about terrible things, but rarely do we hear much about exciting new developments. d When Second Sight started experimenting, little did they know that they were on their way to revolutionizing the treatment of blindness!

Check your ideas on page 146. Do Exercises 4 and 5. 6

Rewrite the sentences in a more emphatic style, using the words in brackets. 1 Some doctors read research about new medicine, but too many just accept what big drug companies tell them. (do) 2 While caffeine increases energy levels, in large doses it can actually prove fatal. (does) 3 In the old days, doctors sometimes removed arms or legs without using any painkillers! (did) 4 When the patient started having terrible headaches, she didn’t know it was because a spider was living in her ear. (little)

122  Unit 10  Life changing

5 No research suggests there is anything unhealthy about a vegetarian diet. (in no way) 6 Doctors didn’t often cut people open in the days before penicillin. (rarely) 7 You don’t fully become an adult until the age of 24. (only after) 8 In the Middle Ages, doctors were never in doubt that releasing blood from the body kept people healthy. (at no time) 9 Plastic surgery didn’t become very popular until the 1980s, despite having been around for over 200 years before then. (not until) 10 People in the USA do less exercise than anyone else in the world. (nowhere)   7

Dr Ruit has now set up a project with Dr Geoffrey Tabin to train doctors from other developing countries to use the new system and help some of the other 20 million blind people with curable cataracts.

PRONUNCIATION  Adding emphasis We usually stress do / does / did in sentences where it has been added for emphasis. We also usually stress negative adverbs when they introduce a point to be emphasized. a Listen and check your answers in Exercise 6. Then listen again and note the way stress is used to add emphasis.    52 b Practise saying each sentence in an emphatic way. Which of the ideas most / least surprised you? Why?

8

Dr Sanduk Ruit, a doctor from Nepal, created a new system only did for conducting cataract surgery. (5) he manage to reduce the cost of the operation to around $25 per patient, he reduced the time it took and developed in a production-line approach. In fact, (6) the world do they carry out the operation more efficiently and successfully than in Nepal. The result makes a huge difference to thousands of lives. Not only (7) brings the operation bring sight back, it (8) back the ability to farm and do similar work, which in turn helps to reduce poverty.

Complete the article with single words. There are 39 million blind people in the world. But do people realize that perhaps half of (1) those affected by blindness could be cured, simply by removing the cataract* which causes it. Many people already have surgery to remove cataracts. (2) In fact, it is a very common operation in many countries, does the patient fail to and only very (3) recover good sight. However, until recently the procedure cost quite a lot and was too expensive for (4) sufferers in developing countries. That was until

cataract a medical condition which causes the lens of the eye to become cloudy resulting in blurred vision       9

CHOOSE 1 Work on your own. Find out about an amazing development in medical history. Write a summary of your findings explaining what happened and why it was important. 2 Work in pairs. Decide what you think the biggest health risk facing your country is. Think of five ways it could be tackled. 3 Complete each sentence in two different ways that are true for you. Present your ideas to the class or in groups. 1 I do sometimes not I 2 Not until 3 When I first .

, but more often than . did I . , little did I know that

Eye tests can now be carried out using common forms of technology.

Unit 10  Life changing  123

10D  A broken body isn’t a broken person

When you let go of what you are, you become what you might be.

JANINE SHEPHERD

Read about Janine Shepherd and get ready to watch her TED Talk.  

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS Collaborative listening

Watch 4

Fast speech can be difficult to understand. Focus on what you did hear. Think about the context and what you know about the subject or situation to guess what might have been said. If you are with someone, compare what you heard; you may hear different things. 1

 2

 3

Student A: Listen and note the nouns / things you hear. Student B: Listen and note the verbs / actions you hear. Student C: Listen and note whatever you want. Student D: Listen carefully without taking notes.

Work in your groups. Write a complete text based on your combined notes. Your text does not have to be exactly the same as the extract you heard in Exercise 1. Listen to the extract again and compare it with what you wrote in Exercise 2. In what ways is your text different to the extract?    53

124  Unit 10  Life changing

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?    10.1 1 The accident took place at the time of the Olympics. 2 The vehicle that hit Janine was going fast. 3 Janine's cycling helmet protected her head from any damage. 4 Janine had an out-of-body experience as she was fighting for her life. 5 Janine had no movement below her waist after the operation. 6 The doctor said the result of the operation meant Janine would eventually be as good as new.

Look at the Authentic listening skills box. Then work in groups. Listen to the extract from the beginning of the TED Talk.    53 • • • •

  10.0

 5

Work in pairs. Watch Part 2 of the talk. Take notes on what you hear and compare.    10.2

6

Work in pairs. Complete the sentences together. Then watch Part 2 of the talk again and check your answers.    10.2

1 Janine did not know what the other people in the . spinal ward 2 Janine felt the friendships she made there were . unusual because they were 3 The other people in the ward shared their hopes and rather than . 4 When Janine left the ward and first saw the sun again, for her life. she felt 5 The head nurse had told Janine she would but she did not believe her. 6 Janine wanted to give up because she was in .

  7

Look at these phrases. How do you think they are connected? What new activity and job do you think Janine took up? buttons and dials learn to navigate sense of freedom take the controls

get a licence pass a medical slide up on the wing teach other people

 8

Watch Part 3 of the talk. Was your answer to Exercise 7 correct?    10.3

  9

Work in pairs. Explain what happened to Janine using the phrases in Exercise 7.

 10 Watch Part 4 of the talk. Decide what you think Janine’s

message is for people. Discuss your idea with a partner.    10.4

 11

Vocabulary in Context a Watch the clips from the TED Talk. Choose the correct meanings of the words and phrases.    10.5

 12

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • Did you enjoy Janine’s talk? Why? / Why not? • Do you think you could have overcome something like Janine's experience? Why? / Why not? • What judgements do people make when they meet others for the first time? • Have your friends ever helped you overcome a problem or difficulty? How? • Is there something you would like to do but have not? What’s stopping you?

CHALLENGE Work in pairs. Discuss what challenges these situations might create for a person and what opportunities might be created. Then work with another pair of students. Put your challenges in order from the most difficult to the easiest. Discuss your reasons. • Having a serious accident like Janine’s • Moving to a new country because of a parent’s job • Failing your final exams at school • Going to university in a new city

b Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • What might be something that is difficult to grasp? Have you ever experienced this? • Do you think it is good to get out of your comfort zone? Why? / Why not? Have you ever been in that situation? What happened? • Do any of your friends or family have a nice nickname you like? Why do they have it?

Unit 10  Life changing  125

10E  Getting better SPEAKING Speaking strategy Developing the conversation When we respond to news, we don’t just show sympathy or surprise. We often add a further comment or a question to keep the conversation going. You’re joking! When did he do that? Poor guy. So is he OK? Useful language

1

Work in pairs. What would you say or ask if you heard that someone you knew: • got good marks in their exams? • had been kicked out of school? • was moving from where they live? • was ill or had an accident?

 2

Listen to two conversations between friends. Answer the questions.  1 Who are they talking about? Why? 2 What happened to the person they are talking about?

 3

Which of the phrases in the Useful language box did you hear in each conversation? Listen again and check.    54

4

Work in pairs. Take turns saying the sentences. Your partner should respond and add a further question or comment. 1 Apparently, he’ll have to have an operation. 2 Her mum said she was grounded.* 3 I saw him yesterday and he said he was feeling a lot better. 4 Apparently, it’s a really bad cold. He’s going to be off all week. 5 Did I tell you? My older sister’s going to have a baby!

Reporting stories / news Apparently, … I heard (that) … Expressing surprise You’re kidding! Oh no! Responding to good news Wow! That’s great! Awesome! Showing sympathy Poor guy / girl! He must be fed up!

grounded not allowed to go out as a punishment for doing something wrong 5

Practise having conversations based on your ideas in Exercise 1. Use the Useful language box to help you.

WRITING  A success story 6

Passing on a message Say ‘hi’ from me. Tell him to get well soon. Tell her I’m thinking of her.

Work in groups. Can you think of a time you overcame one of these things? Tell each other your success stories. a difficulty an inability

  7

a fear an opponent

an illness disgust

Work in pairs. Student A: read the story on this page. Student B: read the story on page 153. Then tell each other: 1 which of the things mentioned in Exercise 6 each writer overcame. 2 what the writer finally managed to do.

126  Unit 10  Life changing

  54

I looked down at the water and the waves crashing against the rocks. My legs immediately started to shake. Someone shouted, ‘Come on, Yasine, you can do it!’ I was on an activity holiday. This is what I had wanted to do – walking, climbing, camping – and now here I was doing these things and I couldn’t move. I wanted to be anywhere else but here. We were doing a walk along a narrow coastal path, but it had become less and less like a path and more like a cliff we had to climb along. We finally came to a point where we had to hold a piece of rock and jump over a small gap to get to the rest of the path. Everyone else had done it and I was the last one. It wasn’t far. Not much more than a metre or a metre and a half. But I just couldn’t do it. I was sure I was going to fall. I was stuck. The rest of the group then started to shout together, ‘You can do it! You can do it!’ I grabbed the rock and leapt to the other side. I made it! Everyone cheered. I had finally managed to do it and it felt like I was champion of the world.      8

Read the story that you did not read in Exercise 7. Can you find these features in either story? Compare your findings with your partner. 1 2 3 4

      9

 10

An interesting opening sentence that grabs the reader’s attention Inversion to make part of the story more emphatic Examples of direct speech Descriptive verbs that make the story more exciting

WRITING SKILL  Using descriptive verbs Complete each sentence with the correct form of these descriptive verbs.

Useful language Explaining how you felt before you succeeded I was absolutely terrified. I was sure I was going to fall / fail / lose! I’d tried absolutely everything. I was ready to just give up.

Explaining how you felt in the creep grab leap peer end It was the best day / one of the best rush scream slam stare days of my life. It was a moment I’ll never forget. 1 They me to hospital and we got there just in time! the top of the table and pulled myself up. 2 I It was a truly memorable experience. as the motorbike came speeding towards me. 3 ‘Watch out!’ she It was a day that changed my life. into the darkness, I couldn’t 4 I could hear a strange noise, but as I see anything! out of my chair and ran into the 5 When I heard the scream, I kitchen to see what the problem was. at the letter in complete amazement! I just 6 I couldn’t believe my eyes! downstairs, trying hard not to make a sound! 7 I the door shut behind me. 8 I ran out of the room Write a story of between 200 and 250 words about overcoming something. Use the phrase I finally managed to … somewhere in the story. Have you ever overcome a fear?

Unit 10  Life changing  127

Unit 1 

Grammar reference and practice

PRESENT AND PAST FORMS Present simple We use the present simple to talk about things that are generally true, habits or permanent states. I miss my host family. We also use the present simple to talk about things we think will happen at a particular time in the future because they are scheduled. e arrive at seven in the morning and then leave the following W evening. Present continuous We use the present continuous to talk about actions we see as temporary, in progress or unfinished.

USED TO AND WOULD To talk about habits, regular actions or events in the past, we can use used to and would. We can also use the past simple. Often, these habits or events no longer happen. Would is more common than used to. We often start with used to and then give extra details using would or the past simple. I used to do it all the time when I was a student going home to visit friends … Often, when you went to some hitching spots you’d have to queue up behind several others already waiting for a lift … I often argued with my parents about the dangers of hitching and I would tell them about all the amazing experiences I’d had. We describe past states over a period of time with used to or the past simple. We do not use would.

We’re talking about study-abroad programmes.

Hitchhiking used to be / was / would be so common when I was / used to be / would be a student.

We also use the present continuous to talk about things in the future that we have arranged to do with other people.

We describe individual past events and situations with the past simple only. We do not use used to or would.

I’m meeting some friends on Sunday.

I also spent / used to spend / would spend one summer hitching around South America.

Past simple We use the past simple to describe finished actions in the past, especially when there is one finished action after another. I spent six months in Berlin in 2015. Then I came home. Past continuous We use the past continuous to emphasize an action in progress around a time in the past. I was actually thinking about cancelling my trip before I left. Past perfect simple We use the past perfect simple to emphasize that one thing happened before a particular point in the past. I’d never left Argentina. Past perfect continuous We prefer to use the past perfect continuous (had been + -ing) to talk about something in progress over a period of time up to or before a particular point in the past. However, we also use the past perfect simple in most cases. I’d been wanting to go there for ages. Remember that some ‘state’ verbs that do not not express action are not used in continuous forms. Exercises 1 and 2 128  Unit 1  Grammar reference and practice

To form negatives, we use didn’t to show the past tense. Notice that use to is used in negatives. People didn’t use to worry about sharing their space. It is common to form negatives using never instead of didn’t. Notice that we use used to to indicate the past tense. People never used to worry about sharing their space. When we ask questions, we use the auxiliary did to show the question is in the past tense. Notice that use to is used in questions. Did you use to go there? There is no present form of used to. We use the adverb usually or the verb tend to. People don’t used to usually hitchhike now. Exercises 3–5

road to be picked up by someone else. The vast majority the robot well and it of people (5) four trips in Canada, Holland, Germany (6) and the USA.

EXERCISES 1

Choose the correct options. I (1) was going / went on a French exchange recently. I (2) was staying / stayed with a French boy named Olivier and his family for three weeks over Easter. I (3) had / was having an amazing time out there. They (4) were taking / took me skiing for ten days, which was incredible! I (5) didn’t go / hadn't been before, but (6) I'd been having / I was having lessons on an artificial slope to get myself ready, so I wasn’t completely useless when I got there. Over the next few weeks, both my skiing and my French (7) had improved / improved. The only bad thing about the trip was that while we (8) had been staying / were staying in the mountains, I got really ill. I don’t know if it was food poisoning or what, but I (9) felt / had felt really bad. Olivier (10) has been coming / is coming here in July. I’m a bit worried because I can’t take him to do exciting things like skiing! Most of the time here, (11) I just hang out / I’m just hanging out with my friends. (12) I still look / I’m still looking forward to seeing him, though.

  2

Complete the sentences. Use the past perfect continuous form of the verb if appropriate. If not, use the past perfect simple. (talk) about doing a student 1 My sister exchange for years, so it’s great that she finally went. (know) each other for years before 2 We we decided to go travelling together. (lie) 3 I got really badly sunburnt. I around on the beach all day and just forgot to put sun cream on! (see) quite a lot of the country during 4 I my time there, but that was my first time in the capital. (enjoy) 5 This was my third time in the city. I it the other two times but didn’t have much of a feel for it yet. (stay) in a B&B, 6 They were so kind. We but they said we could sleep at their place.

 3

Complete the text about HitchBot with would, used to or the past simple in each gap. HitchBot was a special robot designed by scientists at two Canadian universities as an experiment to see how send the humans react to robots. They (1) robot on hitchhiking trips with instructions to try and visit certain places along the way. They (2) leave the robot at the side of the road and when someone , the robot pulled up to see what it (3) read a message explaining what it (4) wanted to do. The driver then had to pick up the robot, put it in their car and then leave it by the side of another

4

Rewrite each sentence using used to or would and the verb in bold. 1 My grandparents usually came on holiday with us when I was younger. come on holiday with us My grandparents when I was younger 2 In the past, most workers only had one day a week as a holiday. work six days a week. In the past, most workers 3 In the 19th century, women usually travelled with someone. travel on their own in the 19th century. Women 4 My hair’s a lot longer now. have shorter hair. I 5 My dad gave up playing football professionally because he got injured. to be a professional footballer until he My dad got injured.

 5

Complete each pair of sentences with the correct form of the verb in bold and a pronoun. Use the adverb in brackets, if given. Put one sentence in a past form and the other in a present form. leave 1a When I went to Mexico in 2016, it was the first time my country. (ever) ? You’ve hardly seen the city. (already) 1b get used to 2a I was in the UK for almost nine months, but I can’t say I the food. (ever) speaking in 2b It’s taken a while, but Spanish. Hopefully, I’ll be fluent by the time we leave. (slowly) stay 3a I was a bit worried because with a host family before, but it was fine. (never) on your study-abroad trip next 3b Where year? get 4a We took a wrong turn back there. the beaten track. 4b We went to seven cities in four days, so a feel for the places. (hardly)

very off

Unit 1  Grammar reference and practice  129

Unit 2 

Grammar reference and practice

PRESENT PERFECT FORMS AND PAST SIMPLE Present perfect We use the present perfect simple: • to introduce or list experiences connected to a present situation / discussion. • to refer to a completed event within a period of time including now. • to talk about the duration of something that is still true now. Most successful entrepreneurs have failed at least once. Entrepreneurs have always needed the confidence to recover from failure. We use the present perfect continuous: • to talk about duration of activities that are still true now. • to emphasize a process (not a completed action). The number of entrepreneurs has been growing over the last few years. Kickstarter has been running for several years now. When talking about duration, we prefer the continuous form but we can use the simple form with no difference in meaning. T he number of entrepreneurs has been growing over the last few years. The number of entrepreneurs has grown over the last few years. We usually use the simple form when talking about a completed action but the continuous to emphasize the process. This is why the simple form is preferred with specific amounts. Since it started, Kickstarter has been raising raised two billion dollars. He’s been starting started ten different companies over the last fifteen years. Past simple We use the past simple: • to tell a story of completed events. • with time phrases that show completed time. • to talk about the duration of completed events. D’Aloisio’s first investor contacted him via email from Hong Kong. She wrote for ten years without success. Exercises 1–3

VERB PATTERNS (-ING OR INFINITIVE WITH TO) We commonly use the -ing form with these verbs. admit avoid can’t stand consider delay enjoy finish keep mind miss practise recommend We commonly use the infinitive with to with these verbs. agree fail offer Exercise 4 Objects before -ing and to Some verbs can have an object before an -ing form or an infinitive with to. catch sb/sth -ing feel sb/sth -ing hear sb/sth -ing like sb/sth -ing miss sb/sth -ing see sb/sth -ing

discover sb/sth -ing find sb/sth -ing imagine sb/sth -ing love sb/sth -ing notice sb/sth -ing start sb/sth -ing

advise sb/sth to beg sb/sth to convince sb/sth to force sb/sth to invite sb/sth to permit sb/sth to

dislike sb/sth -ing hate sb/sth -ing leave sb/sth -ing mind sb/sth -ing remember sb/sth -ing stop sb/sth -ing

allow sb/sth to cause sb/sth to dare sb/sth to get sb/sth to order sb/sth to prepare sb/sth to

ask sb/sth to challenge sb/sth to expect sb/sth to hire sb/sth to pay sb/sth to remind sb/sth to

We can make negatives using not. I hate not having a mobile phone with me. Exercise 5 Verbs with two objects We commonly follow these verbs with two objects. ask buy give pass

book bring build cook find get lend make owe save show tell

With most verbs that can be followed by two objects, we can reverse the order of the objects if we put for or to in front of the person / group of people. The preposition we use depends on the initial verb. Can you email me the report sometime today, please? Can you email the report to me sometime today, please? Exercise 6

130  Unit 2  Grammar reference and practice

arrange decide expect hope intend need plan promise refuse

EXERCISES 1

Do the time phrases show a completed time (a), a time period that includes now (b) or both (ab)? a The company’s profits rose . b The company’s profits have been rising 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

   2

   5

 3

over the last five years last year in 2015 in the past few months since they found a different distributor when we did the marketing campaign for a long time over the last year

Complete the summary with one word in each gap.

Explain the use of these verb forms from Exercise 2. 1 Madison Forbes has always loved drawing … 2 She’s been turning her designs into a successful business… 3 She came up with the name … 4 They have also started producing shoes … 5 The company has made several million dollars in sales … 6 Not that Madison has been living a life of luxury …

4

 1 I can’t imagine him (post) something like that! It’s so out of character.  2 I accidentally downloaded a virus and it caused the (crash). whole system (speak) in  3 Our teacher always forces us English in class.  4 I got some bad feedback on my project. It left me (feel) quite fed up. (change) your  5 We’d like to remind you password within the next two weeks. (play) music while they load is  6 Websites so annoying!  7 I can still remember begging my parents (buy) me my first Xbox! (try) to access the  8 They caught him school’s online records. (take) my  9 If I could, I’d hire someone computing exam so I didn’t have to revise for it. (win). They’ve got 10 I just can’t see them too many players injured.

.

Madison Forbes has (1) loved drawing and 2010 she’s been turning her design and (2) designs into a successful business called Fishflops, which produces flip flops with Madison’s cute sea characters on them. She came up with the name in 2006 (3) she was just eight years old and, with the help of her father, up the business which now supplies (4) clothing stores like Nordstrom as well as the Association of few Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). Over the (5) years, they have also started producing shoes and T-shirts and several million dollars in the company has (6) a life of sales – not that Madison has been (7) saved luxury with the profits: instead, she (8) most of the money to pay for university. The company also contributes to several charities and a portion of the AZA sales goes to protect endangered animals.

Are the sentences correct (C) or incorrect (I)? Correct the incorrect sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

I need to practise giving this presentation before class. We’ve almost finished to raise the money we need. Have you considered to pay someone who can do it? I’m going to keep to write to them until I get an answer! He admitted sending thousands of spam emails. I’d recommend to report it. It doesn’t look right. I tried to get a better deal, but they basically just refused negotiating. 8 That report needs checking before you send it.

Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the verbs.

6

Look at each first sentence. Complete each second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first by adding three words. 1 My parents didn’t let me use social media until I was 16. social media My parents never allowed when I was younger. 2 That video really made me think. Online companies have so much power over us! how much That video really started power online companies have! 3 I warned her about sending her details, but she didn’t listen! send her personal details, but I begged she didn’t listen. 4 Every time you enter the site, they make you change your password. change Every time you enter the site, they your password. 5 That video is just amazing. How could anyone not like it? that video! It’s so amazing! I can’t imagine 6 Don’t let me forget how terrible that site is! to use that site again! It’s awful! 7 My brother writes software for a living, so I basically learned from him. write my I’m lucky because my brother own software. 8 Stop checking your phone! Listen to me for a bit! Can’t you stop checking your phone? I hate to me when I’m talking!

Unit 2  Grammar reference and practice  131

Unit 3 

Grammar reference and practice

DETERMINERS

COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

Determiners are words used before nouns. They are used:

We can make comparatives and superlatives with adjectives, adverbs or nouns.

• to show which noun we mean. • to show how much / how many of something. Articles We use the indefinite article: • before nouns when they are one of several, when it is not important which one we mean or when we mention something for the first time. • to say what people or things are / were. We use the definite article: • before nouns when we think it is clear which thing or things we mean. • before superlative adjectives. • as part of some fixed expressions.

When we want to emphasize something is ‘less than’, we often use the form … not as / so X as … Their training was not as hard as it is now. We can show the size of the difference by modifying the comparative with a number / measurement or a modifier. On average, shot putters are now two and a half inches taller and 130 pounds heavier than they were in the past. Over a thousand more people have run sub-four-minutes miles since Bannister did it. much / a lot / a great deal / far / miles Small difference a bit / slightly Big difference

We do not use any articles: • • • •

before uncountable nouns. with plural nouns to talk about things in general. after prepositions in many expressions with places. before the names of most cities, countries, continents, street names, airports or stations.

Quantifiers Quantifiers are determiners that show how much or how many of something. Some can only be used with uncountable nouns or only with plural countable nouns. We use both to talk about two people and / or things. Either and neither are followed by singular countable nouns. We use them before a noun to talk about two choices or possibilities. Neither is a negative so we don’t use it with no or not. We use every and each only with singular countable nouns. Sometimes it is not important which word we use, but generally: • we use each to focus on individual things in a group or to list two or more things. • we use every to talk about a group or to list three or more things. We use all to talk about the whole of something. All is followed by uncountable or plural nouns. We use any in positive sentences when it is not important to specify the exact person or thing because what we are saying applies to everyone or everything. When we use quantifiers with pronouns, we add of after the quantifier. Exercises 1–3

132  Unit 3  Grammar reference and practice

better more efficient

We can also add modifiers to ‘not as’ comparatives.

not nearly as fast not quite as good

not nearly as many not quite as much

Remember, many and few go with countable nouns and much and little go with uncountable nouns. We can show how two or more changes happen together or affect each other by using the pattern the more … , the more … Comparative Clause Comparative Clause remainder remainder The longer and your legs are, the more they are to thinner energyswing. efficient Look at the box to see how we compare situations now with the past. Athletes are training harder and more intelligently than

they used to do. before. in the past. they did before. Elite shot-putters now they were in the past. are two and a half inches taller they used to be. than 40 years ago. Exercises 4 and 5

EXERCISES 1

Choose the correct options. 1 Mia Hamm first started playing football when she was living in the Italy / Italy. Later, when she was at the junior high school / junior high school, she played in the boys’ team / boys’ team. 2 Hamm has done a lot to promote a women’s / the women’s / women’s football. 3 To tell you the truth / truth / a truth, I’m not really interested in motorbikes / the motorbikes, but I admire Valentino Rossi. He has charm / a charm / the charm and a lovely personality / lovely personality / the lovely personality. 4 Jesse Owens was born in the Alabama / Alabama in 1913. He was the youngest / youngest / a youngest of ten children, and his father was farmer / the farmer / a farmer. 5 As the teenager / teenager / a teenager, Owens helped his family by delivering the groceries / groceries and working in a shoe repair shop / shoe repair shop / the shoe repair shop. 6 Susi Susanti now runs company / the company / a company selling the badminton rackets / badminton rackets. She imports a material / the material for rackets / the rackets from Japan and they’re then produced in China.

  2

 3

Complete the sentences with these determiners. all any both each either every neither no 1 I like the fact that you can play the game anywhere. special equipment is needed. 2 Mia Hamm was named FIFA’s World Player of the Year 2001 and 2002. in his school nor his family had the money 3 to send Jesse Owens to the 1932 Olympics. player who has 4 My brother can name played for the team in the last ten years! athlete who works hard and has 5 I admire a good attitude. team could win, 6 It’s a very close game. but I still think Brazil look stronger. my friends are really into boxing, but I 7 can’t stand it! 8 There’s a website that shows you how much player earns.

 4

Complete each second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the given word and two or three extra words. 1 This season they have scored 65 goals and we’ve only scored 30. we This season they’ve scored have.  miles 2 Usain Bolt actually ran only slightly faster than Jesse Owens. as Usain Bolt.  fast Jesse Owens 3 I used to play basketball quite a lot, but I hardly ever play now. I used to.  much I don’t play basketball 4 No-one has ever won as many gold medals in swimming for her country as her. ever.  successful She is our 5 If you continue to play, your injury will only get worse. worse your injury will get.  longer The 6 The number of professional athletes has increased dramatically. athletes in the past.  far There

For each sentence, decide if both options are grammatically correct. Identify any incorrect options. 1 There’s not much / only a few difference between the two teams. 2 I have almost no / hardly interest in sport, to be honest. 3 Very few / Not many talented young athletes actually become successful. 4 I’ve never really had no / any talent for sport. 5 I don’t have very much / very little respect for many footballers. 6 A lot of / Most medals we win at the Olympics are in long-distance running. 7 When the World Cup is on, I usually try and watch all / every game. 8 I couldn’t see much because there were a lot of / so many people in front of me.  5

Complete the comparatives using your own ideas. 1 2 3 4

I’m slightly than . . I’m nowhere near Young people these days are far more as as there There in the past. than I used to. 5 I , the more successful you will be. 6

.

Unit 3  Grammar reference and practice  133

Unit 4 

Grammar reference and practice

Future forms 1 We usually use be going to + verb to talk about what we have already planned. Unless we use an adverb like probably, it means it is a definite plan. They’re going to build a new museum in our town. I’m going to stay in tonight and study.

We sometimes use be about to to talk about a plan, arrangement or prediction concerning what is going to happen in the immediate future. We sometimes add just to emphasize it is the next thing we plan to do. We’re about to hold a community festival. He’s just about to leave, but if you rush you might catch him before he does.

We also often use the present continuous – particularly with plans and arrangements involving other people.

Exercises 1 and 2

I’m meeting a friend of mine later to go and see that new exhibition at the gallery.

FUTURE FORMS 2

Sometimes we use will to talk about scheduled plans. The coach will arrive at nine and will take everyone to the museum where the tour will start at ten. We usually use will + infinitive at the moment of making a decision. A: What’s your flight number? B: I don’t know. I’ll check in a bit and I’ll send you a text with it. We usually use will to make promises, threats, refusals, etc. (see Unit 6) We can use will or be going to to talk about predictions. Unless we use an adverb like probably or possibly, or an introductory verb such as think or guess, they both mean the speaker is certain about their prediction. We can also use may / might to show less certainty. Certain

Less certain

It’s going to create jobs.

It’s possibly going to create jobs.

It’s going to be a disaster. It’s probably going to be a disaster. They’ll go over budget.

They’ll probably go over budget. / I think they’ll go over budget.

They won’t get many visitors.

They might not get many visitors.

We use the future continuous to emphasize that an action is ongoing / unfinished in relation to a particular point in time or a second future action. The future continuous is will be + -ing. (We also use be going to be + -ing). It’s going to create jobs and they’ll be employing local artists. When we use a future time clause, the verb is in the present simple or present perfect. But what about once it’s been completed?

The future in the past When we talk about the future as seen from a time in the past, we can use was / were going to, would as the past tense of will and the past continuous. My son was struggling and I was worried he was going to go off school and maybe end up getting in with the wrong kids. He went several steps further and promised those 11 students that he would turn the orchestra into a world leader! Abreu had managed to get 50 music stands for the 100 children he was expecting to come and rehearse. Exercises 3 and 4 The future perfect The future perfect simple is formed using will / won’t + have + past participle. Soon over ten million people will have seen it. The future perfect simple emphasizes actions completed by a certain time. I’ll call you after six. I’ll have finished work by then. = already finished before six The future perfect continuous is formed using will / won’t + have been + -ing. It’ll soon have been running for 70 years. The future perfect continuous emphasizes an ongoing action that is taking place in the present and will continue up until a point in the future. By the end of this course, I will have been studying English for ten whole years! We usually use a time reference with the future perfect such as before the weekend, by Thursday, etc. The most common phrases begin with by: by the end of the week, by nine, by the time the building is finished, by then, etc. Exercise 5

134  Unit 4  Grammar reference and practice

EXERCISES 1

 3

Complete the sentences using the two future forms in bold and the verbs in brackets. Decide which form is the best for each gap.

expected going

The festival is going to be great because some of my favourite bands are playing.

  2

 4

I’ll come over to your house after I have finished my homework.  am

1 The tickets are going to sell out immediately. soon The tickets will sell out almost gone on sale. 2 First they’re going to repair the houses and then they’ll paint them.  before them. They’re going to repair the houses 3 They need to raise a lot of money so they can complete the project.  to the project, they have to raise a lot If of money. 4 I don’t think that the project will be a failure.  should . The project 5 I could meet you when I go shopping in town on Saturday.  be in town on Saturday so I could meet I you then.

wasn’t

were

would

Complete the second sentences using the words in brackets and 1–3 additional words. 1 I had high hopes for it, but it was actually a bit of a letdown. (thought) be. It wasn’t as good as 2 I had high expectations, but it totally exceeded them. (expecting) to be. It was even better than 3 They ended up with three million visitors – far more than initially expected. (hoping) to get around a million They visitors, but ended up with three times that! 4 I’d arranged to go out and meet some friends, but in the end I was too tired. (going) to go out and meet some I friends, but in the end I was too tired. 5 I hadn’t planned to return yet, but I ran out of money. (stay) longer, but I ran out of money.  I

Complete the second sentences using 3–5 words – including the words in bold – so that they have the same meaning as the first sentences.

I’ll come over to your house but I am going to finish my homework first.

than

In many ways, Sheffield and Bilbao are similar. By the 1990s, both were post-industrial cities wondering how they were (1) to cope in the coming years. Like the Guggenheim, the National Centre for Popular to be a landmark building that Music was (2) boost tourism in the city. Bosses at the (3) hoping for 400,000 visitors a year, Centre (4) expected, but numbers were far lower (5) with only around 140,000 turning up in the first 12 months. People soon realized that the centre on its going to be enough to transform own (6) the city, and it closed down before even reaching its second birthday.

present continuous / be going to (be) great because some of my The festival (play). favourite bands

1 present simple / will What do you think you (do) after you (leave) school? 2 present simple / future continuous (have) the Let’s hope that when we (not / rain). concert outside, it 3 present perfect / going to (start) the project once they They (raise) enough money. 4 present continuous / present perfect (go) on a school trip to Hong Kong We (finish) all our exams. after we 5 will / future continuous (not do) much at the weekend, so I I (show) you around the city, if you like. 6 present perfect / be about to / will (start), I I’m sorry, the film (finish). (call) you when it

Complete the summary with these words.

  5

Complete the sentences by choosing the correct forms. 1 Hurry up! The film will start / have started by the time we get there, if we’re not careful! 2 I’m going / I will have gone to a concert tomorrow night, so can we meet on Friday instead? 3 I’m helping / I’ll have helped a friend with something tomorrow, but I’ll have finished / I’m finishing by five, so I’ll call you then. 4 I’ll have been living / I’m going to live here for the last five years in July. 5 I read somewhere that by the time you’re 60, you will have been sleeping / slept for twenty years!

Unit 4  Grammar reference and practice  135

Unit 5 

Grammar reference and practice

The Passive 1 We use the passive to focus on who or what an action affects. We also use the passive when it is unclear or unimportant who performs an action. We form the passive using be + past participle. Present simple

We can make a passive sentence in two ways when there are two objects. I was recently given this lovely new smartphone. A new smartphone was given to me. I have just been sent an email by Maxine. An email has just been sent to me by Maxine.

The cup is then left far away from your bed. The machines are exported all over the world. Present continuous If your phone is being charged … The wrong questions are being asked. Present perfect simple I have just been sent an email by Maxine. It has been designed to track your sleep patterns.

Exercises 1 and 2

The PASSIVE 2 Passive reporting verbs We often use a passive structure to report general knowledge, beliefs and assumptions. There are two common patterns after the passive. The brain is thought

Past simple I was recently given this lovely new smartphone. We were only told about it at the last minute. Past continuous There was a power cut while the experiment was being carried out. They weren’t being produced in Mexico, so I saw an opportunity. Past perfect I wanted to produce them, but a patent had already been taken out. After modal verbs You’ll be forced to get up. It would be thrown around all over the place. After prepositions I’m scared of being asked questions I can’t answer. Some verbs have two objects: a direct object and an indirect object. My parents gave me a lovely new smartphone. Maxine sent me an email.

It

to have 200,000 kilometres of blood vessels. was believed to be controlled by four different elements or ‘humours’. is estimated to weigh three kilos. is known to recover from serious damage. is thought (that) the brain works like a watch. is claimed (that) the brain is like a computer. is assumed (that) people know what they are doing. is well known (that) smoking causes cancer.

In the second pattern, it is impersonal. It is there because we need a subject for a verb in English sentences. Exercise 3 Causative have and get Have / get + something + past participle is a passive construction, similar in meaning to the sentences in b. However, with this structure, we can also bring in the person or thing that causes the action or is affected by the action (I and My brother in the sentences in c). We use this structure to show that someone else does something for us or to us. a  Someone stole my bag. The hairdresser dyed my brother’s hair. b  My bag was stolen. My brother’s hair was dyed. c  I had my bag stolen. My brother got his hair dyed. Causative get is usually: •  less formal and uncommon in writing. • used when the subject is the cause of the action. Exercises 4 and 5

136  Unit 5  Grammar reference and practice

EXERCISES 1

Complete the sentences with the correct active or passive forms of the verbs in brackets. 1 Language (1) obviously (exist) for many thousands of years before writing (invent), but the existence of (2) (mark) the written records really (3) beginning of history as we know it. The earliest writing (find) in part of what (5) (4) (call) Iraq. now often 2 The printing press (1) (call) one of the most important inventions of all time. (produce) before Of course, books (2) (present) his first Johannes Gutenberg (3) creation to the world, but always by hand! Before too (print) and long, thousands of books (4) (distribute) all over Europe. (5) 3 If you’re worried about your phone (1) (steal), here’s a helpful hack. A special app can (install) so that you can (3) (2) (track) the phone if it’s lost or stolen. You’ll also be (use). It can able to see if the phone (4) (wipe) clean remotely, to stop even (5) (get) hold of data. criminals from (6) (hit) the 4 The first self-driving car only (1) road very recently, but it’s quite possible that cars as (replace) we know them will soon (2) by this new model. Over recent years, much of the (fund) by Elon research into these cars (3) (start) lots of Musk, a TED speaker who (4) different companies. Thousands of self-driving cars already (build) – and (5) (get) more sophisticated. they (6)

  2

 3

Complete each sentence by making these verbs with two objects into the passive. award Ahmed Zewail the Nobel prize in Chemistry give me it set us some tricky questions show the queen one of the first telephones teach us how to do it 1 In January 1878, one of the first telephones was shown to the queen by its inventor, Alexander Graham Bell. , 2 In 1999, the Nobel prize in Chemistry who was the first Egyptian to receive the prize. 3 The science test was a bit of a nightmare because we ! in 4 I can type quite fast because we primary school. 5 I had my watch stolen, and I was really upset because it by my grandparents.

Complete each pair of sentences using the word in bold; one sentence should be in the active form and the other should be in the passive form. 1 accept now that increases in global a It temperatures are due to human activity. that we need to take b Most scientists action to reduce global warming. 2 not know exactly how many stars there are in a We the solar system. exactly how stars were first formed. b It 3 think that it could be a Some researchers possible to live on Mars. to have water under its surface. b Mars 4 believe to be caused a In the past, many diseases by having too much blood in the body. that they could b Doctors in the past cure diseases by removing blood from the body.

 4

Complete the short report with one word in each gap. The government is (1) air quality tested thought because high levels of pollution (2) increasing. The government is also to (3) in schools to try to find having research (4) out whether air pollution is having any effect on students’ performance. Air pollution is known (5) affect health and is estimated to (6) is also thousands of deaths each year. (7) it affects the development of the claimed (8) brain and young people’s intelligence, but more research is needed to decide if there is a clear link.

  5

Rewrite each first sentence using the word in bold and three other words so that the second sentence means the same. 1 We still do not really know what the purpose of dreams is.  known what the purpose of dreams is. It 2 In the past, people believed that dreams were warnings about the future.  be warnings about the In the past, dreams future. 3 We scanned the brains of the participants while they were sleeping.  their while they Participants in the experiment were sleeping. 4 We then asked them to tell us about any dreams they had while they were asleep.  talk about any dreams they had. They

Unit 5  Grammar reference and practice  137

Unit 6 

Grammar reference and practice

MODAL VERBS AND MEANING Modal verbs never change their form. They go with normal verbs and are followed by the infinitive without to form of those verbs. The modal verb adds meaning to the verb. We can sometimes use a phrase or normal verb instead of a modal verb. Will / would

may / might / must We use might if something is uncertain but possible. You might stop weak species going extinct. We also use may if something is uncertain but possible and for permission. These changes may bring benefits.

We use will to express if something is certain or sure to happen and to express promises, offers, habits and refusals.

We use must if something is necessary and if we are sure of something based on our experience.

The first thing that will strike people …

These changes must bring benefits.

We use would to express whether something is theoretically certain to happen, to report as the past form of will and to express a habit in the past.

Need and have can sometimes behave as modal verbs.

If the habitat disappeared, they’d die out. Should / shall We use should to express a good or better idea or if we expect something to happen in the future. Should we be trying to conserve these species? We use shall to ask for and give suggestions or make offers about a current or future situation. What shall we do about it? Can / could We use can to express ability and permission. We also use can if something is only possible sometimes and factually possible (or not in the negative). They can be difficult to see in the wild. We use could to express past ability / inability, if something happened sometimes or is theoretically possible. We also use could in polite requests. I couldn’t swim until I was in my twenties.

Need I lock the door? You have to go to school. Exercises 1 and 2

MODAL VERBS AND INFINITIVE FORMS Modal verbs can be followed by different kinds of infinitive forms. To talk about actions generally, we use a modal verb + infinitive without to form. As you can see, it does look quite professional. To talk about actions in progress or extended over time, we use a modal verb + be + -ing (the continuous infinitive without to). We should be doing more to protect them. To talk about the past in general, we use a modal verb + have + past participle (the perfect infinitive without to). You could have (could’ve) told me how cruel it was and I honestly wouldn’t have cared. To emphasize that an action was in progress when another thing happened, we use a modal verb + have been + -ing (the perfect continuous infinitive without to). I can’t have been paying attention when I read about it. We can also use modal verbs with passive forms. More should be done to reduce the suffering of animals. (= generally) I got really sick after eating that meat. It can’t have been cooked properly. (= in the past) Exercises 3 and 4

138  Unit 6  Grammar reference and practice

EXERCISES 1

3

2

1 New research has shown that there can’t / might once have been a creature similar to a unicorn. 2 I can’t believe how little he ate. He can’t be feeling / can’t have been feeling very hungry. 3 I can’t believe you thought that story was true. You should / must have checked it on some other sites! 4 I’m not surprised his parents were angry. He shouldn’t have kept / shouldn’t have been keeping snakes without telling them! 5 Surely there would / will have been more in the papers about the tree octopus if it were true. 6 I’m guessing that you might / should have heard about the tree octopus, right? 7 We promise that any cat you buy from us will have been being / will have been thoroughly checked by a vet. 8 You shouldn’t have scared / shouldn’t scare the dog. He wouldn’t / couldn’t have barked at you otherwise.

Choose the correct modal verbs. Juliana Machado Ferreira is a conservation biologist who is trying to stop illegal wildlife trade in Brazil. People in Brazil (1) will / shall often keep wild birds as pets, but Machado says they (2) shouldn’t / couldn’t. Taking animals from nature (3) can / should have a terrible impact on the habitat and other animals there. For example, if a large proportion of the wild birds that are captured are female, this (4) might / will inevitably reduce future populations. The birds (5) may / would also be predators for other animals or consume particular plants, so a reduction in the bird numbers (6) can / can’t have an impact on the rest of the ecosytem. She believes the public (7) must / might be educated about these effects. In the past, she has worked with the police to help return birds to their original habitat. The problem is that they (8) could / shall be from any number of different places, so Machado used a genetic test to decide where the birds (9) must / will be from. She developed her ideas at the US Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory. She got an internship there because she (10) would / could write regularly to them asking if she (11) would / could become a volunteer until eventually they said yes! And now, Juliana shows the same determination in her work. She has a very varied work life but, in the next few years, she (12) may / can spend more time in her home office. She also says that if she (13) can / could talk to her younger self she (14) would / should tell herself to learn something about finance and marketing. This is because she is now in a management position, and students aren't taught how to deal with money in biology classes. Choose the best self-follow-up comment to each question. 1 Would I ever do it? 2 3 4 5

a b Shall I do it for you? a b Must I do it? a b Should I really do it? a b Will I do it at a some point? b

6 Can I do it?

Only if I had no other option. Of course I can. I still haven’t decided. It’s no trouble. It’ll be fun. Can’t someone else? There’s no other option. I’m not sure it’ll improve things. I still haven’t decided. I don’t mind if you don’t want to. a I’d really like to try. b I might not.

Choose the correct options.

4

Complete the rewrite for each sentence. Use the best modal verb and two or three other words in each gap. 1 It’s just not possible for the Loch Ness monster to have survived that long without being found. that long without The Loch Ness monster being found. It’s impossible. 2 It’s possible that Loch Ness was once connected to the sea. connected to the sea. Loch Ness 3 I can’t believe I didn’t realize the film was a fake. the film was a fake. I’m so stupid. I really 4 If there really was a monster, why aren’t there more photos of it? more photos of the monster if it People really existed! 5 It’s impossible to get near the loch now without being filmed by security cameras. By the time you get to the edge of the loch, you by security cameras. 6 There’s no way he was telling the truth about what he saw. about what he saw. If you ask me, he 7 Loch Ness is only 10,000 years old. Plesiosaurs died out 60 million years ago. around when plesiosaurs Loch Ness still existed. 8 I swear I saw something. Honestly, if only I’d had my camera with me! my camera with me. I I what I saw if I’d had it.

Unit 6 Grammar reference and practice

139

Unit 7 

Grammar reference and practice

First, second, third and mixed conditionals First conditional We use first conditionals to talk about possible results of real situations now or in the future. If you’re at school today, you’ll probably start working sometime in the 2020s. I’m going to take the test again if I fail. Second conditional We use second conditionals to talk about imaginary situations and results now or in the future. If these drawings were painted more realistically, they would look amazing. I wouldn’t joke about it if I were you. Third conditional We use third conditionals to talk about imaginary situations and results in the past. If she’d wanted pictures, she’d have told us. If he hadn’t spent that day with his niece, the Monster Engine would never have happened. Mixed conditional We can use mixed conditionals to talk about imaginary past situations and imaginary present results. If their schools had encouraged unusual ways of seeing the world, lots of adults would be more creative. I wouldn’t be here now if she hadn’t helped me. We can also use other modal verbs in the result clauses of conditional sentences. If I do OK in my exams, I might / may try to study fine art at university. = Maybe I will study fine art. If I get really good grades, I can go and study abroad. = It will be possible for me to study abroad. If he had been a bit taller, he could have become a really great basketball player. = It would have been possible for him to become a great player. Exercises 1–3

140  Unit 7  Grammar reference and practice

WISH, IF ONLY, WOULD RATHER Wish, if only and would rather all introduce hypothetical ideas – things that we want to be true, but we see as impossible. As with conditional sentences, we use past forms of verbs to talk about hypothetical events. We use the past simple, the past continuous, could and would to hypothesize about present situations. We use the past simple when hypothesizing about general situations or states. I wish I was better with words. I wish I was as creative as her / him. I wish I didn’t have to do arts subjects. If only I had an eye in the back of my head! I’d rather the teacher didn’t set homework. We use the past continuous to hypothesize about an action or specific situation happening now. If only I wasn’t sitting here now! I wish I was doing something else. This is boring. We use could to hypothesize about an ability we want. I wish I could draw better. I wish I could help you, but I just can’t. We use would to hypothesize about a habit or behaviour we want to stop (or start). I sometimes wish my classmates wouldn’t make so much noise. I wish she would speak slower. I can’t understand anything she says. We use the past perfect to hypothesize about the past and express regrets. I wish my parents hadn’t forced me to learn an instrument. I often say to myself, ‘If only I’d spent more time thinking about this before I started.’ Note that, where the subject of would rather is the same as the verb that follows it, we use an infinitive without to. I’d rather you did it. I’d rather do it myself. Exercises 4–6

EXERCISES 1

4

1 A: This is taking ages to do. B: Yeah, sorry. I thought it was a good idea at the time, but I wish I hadn’t suggested / didn’t suggest it now. 2 A: Shall I ask my mum or dad if they can take us there? B: I’d rather we go / went on our own. 3 A: I’d like to study abroad somewhere. B: Me too. If only I can / could speak Chinese! I’d love to go to Shanghai. 4 A: I wish the teacher would / wouldn’t make us copy everything from the book. B: I know. It’s a bit boring, isn’t it? 5 A: Did you go to the gig yesterday? B: No, but I wish I had / did. I heard it was great. 6 A: If only I didn’t have to / wouldn’t have to leave. I’d love to talk more. B: Don’t worry. I need to be home before 12, anyway.

Choose the correct options. 1 If you will want / want to study abroad, you’ll need to save some money first. 2 I wouldn’t play this instrument well if my dad hadn’t helped / doesn’t help me when I first started. 3 If I would have / had more time, I’d love to learn how to paint with watercolours. 4 It’s your fault! If you hadn’t been late, everything would’ve been / was fine. 5 The test’s next week and you don’t / are not going to do well if you don’t work more! 6 If we hadn’t changed things when we did, the situation would / will be worse now. 7 It might not have worked if we tried / had tried it that way. 8 If I spoke to my mum like that, she really won’t / wouldn’t be happy!

2

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. (not ask) lots of questions when I was 1 If I at school, I wouldn’t be a scientist now. (create) a culture that encourages 2 If you creativity, people will be happier. (start) painting if my parents 3 I don’t think I hadn’t encouraged me. (be) fluent in English, life would be so 4 If I much easier! (be) very different today 5 Just think! Things if ways of writing hadn’t developed. (never get) 6 If you don’t practise, you better at it. (not do) that if I was you. 7 I (not be) so noisy in the exam room, I 8 If it would’ve done better.

3

Make conditional sentences based on the information. 1 They only realized how talented she was after giving all the children tests to assess creativity levels. They wouldn’t have realized how talented she was if they hadn’t given all the children tests to assess creativity levels. 2 Follow the rules or fail the course. It’s your choice! 3 I can’t really play this. I haven’t practised recently, you see. 4 Some universities don’t value creativity. That’s why they don’t really help students develop it. 5 She didn’t obey the rules when she started her business. That’s why she’s successful today. 6 Creativity in children is like anything else: encourage it or be prepared for it not to grow.

Choose the correct options.

5

Complete each second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given and three extra words. 1 I’m afraid we can’t do anything more to help. only more to help. If 2 My brother is so negative. It’s quite annoying. would about things. I wish my brother 3 I wanted to walk here, but we came by car. rather the car at home. I 4 We should have done a better analysis of the problem. wish the problem better. I

6

Complete each sentence with one word. Contractions count as one word. 1 A: Is it OK if I put some music on? . I’m trying to study. B: I’d rather you 2 A: Do you want to go to the shopping centre? somewhere else. I don’t like B: I’d rather the shops there. asked someone to help us. 3 A: I wish we and do it myself first, B: Really? I’d rather even if I make a mistake. this a secret between us. 4 A: I’d rather you It’s a bit embarrassing. knew what B: Don’t worry. I’d rather I could forget it myself! happened! If

Unit 7 Grammar reference and practice

141

Unit 8 

Grammar reference and practice

Reported speech When we tell an anecdote or story, we often report what people said. We can use: •  direct speech. She said, ‘I love you’ and then he said, ‘Will you marry me?’ •  indirect speech. She said she loved him and he then asked (her) if she’d marry him. •  a mixture of the two. She said, ‘I love you’ and then he asked if she’d marry him. When we report with indirect speech, we follow the normal rules of tenses within a story. This often involves a tense backshift from direct speech. Look at the direct and indirect speech used to report statements about: •  a situation or action at the time it was said / thought. I said, ‘I need to go back to school.’ I said I needed to go back to school. •  an action in progress at the time it was said. She said, ‘I’m going to the station.’ She said she was going to the station. •  an action further back in time before it was said.

In indirect reporting of questions, we use the normal word order of a statement. I said, ‘What are you doing here?’ I asked her what she was doing there. I thought, ‘Why did you ask that?’ I wondered why she’d asked me that. She said, ‘Do you need any help?’ She asked if I needed any help. Remember that when we report what was said, we need to use words for times or places if what we report has finished, is no longer true, and / or was in a different place. They said, ‘Can we wait until tomorrow?’ They asked if they could wait until the next day. He said, ‘I talked to her yesterday.’ He said he’d talked to you the day before. I told them, ‘I was here last Tuesday!’ I told them I’d been there the previous Tuesday. Other useful time phrases for reporting: today now / immediately tomorrow next week last week

that day at that moment / right away the next day the next week / the following week the week before / the previous week

Exercises 1 and 2

He said, ‘I’ve forgotten my money.’ He told me he’d forgotten his money.

Patterns after reporting verbs

•  a plan or prediction for the future at the time it was said.

Notice the patterns that often go with particular verbs.

I asked and they said, ‘We’ll try!’ They said they would try.

verb + infinitive (with to): agree; arrange; claim; decide; intend; offer; pretend; promise; refuse; threaten

When the statement we are reporting is still true, we can use present and other tenses as they apply to now. Miriam told me to tell you she’ll be late. = She’s not here yet so she still will be late. He told me he’s never had tea. = As far as I know, he still hasn’t had tea. When we are correcting a misunderstanding, we prefer the backshift because the misunderstanding is no longer true, but it is not essential. A: We are meeting at 10. B: I thought we were meeting at 11.

verb + -ing: admit; avoid; carry on; consider; deny; imagine; resent; recommend; suggest verb + (that) clause: acknowledge; announce; argue; claim; confess; declare; deny; insist; recommend; state verb + someone + (that) clause: assure; convince; notify; persuade; promise; remind; tell; warn verb + someone + infinitive (with to): advise; ask; encourage; force; invite; persuade; remind; tell; urge; warn verb + preposition + -ing: accuse somebody of; admit / confess to; apologize for; blame somebody for; criticize somebody for; forgive somebody for; insist on; thank somebody for Exercises 3–5

142  Unit 8  Grammar reference and practice

EXERCISES 1

  3

Choose the correct form. A few years ago, a Chinese friend of my parents asked if I (1) want / wanted to visit (2) the following summer / this summer to spend time with their daughter, who was my age. It was a great opportunity, so I agreed to go. I had to fill out a long visa application. My father and I took it to the Chinese embassy and they told us to come back (3) next week / the next week to collect the visa. When we went back, there was a long queue for some reason. My dad explained to the security people that we had been (4) here / there (5) the previous week / last week and we were just collecting a visa, but he was told that we (6) have to / had to queue up like everyone else. So we stood there and started chatting to the man in front of us. He asked my dad where (7) I was / was I going and it turned out it was the same place where he lived. ‘What (8) were / are you doing there?’ he asked. My dad told him I (9) was going to / will stay with a friend of his from university. Then the man asked, ‘What university?’ When my dad told him, the man said one of his best friends (10) had been / be at the same university a few years previously. He said his friend’s name – and it was actually my dad’s friend, too! It was an amazing coincidence!

  2

1 My mum said I should write to the TV company and complain about it. My mum suggested writing to the TV company to tell them how I felt.  suggest 2 They said that they’d meet me to explain their decision. me and explain After I complained, they their decision.  agree 3 I felt terrible for what I said, so I wrote to say sorry. such awful I wrote them a letter things.  apologize 4 Of course, they reject all accusations and claim that they’re in the right. anything wrong.  deny Naturally, they 5 The goal of the rule was prevention of discrimination. discrimination.  intend The rule 6 There has been a lot of pressure on the school to change its dress code. its dress code.  urge The school 7 He knew what the rules were, but he decided to ignore them! the rules!  refuse He basically just 8 They have an employment policy that prioritizes total gender equality. an equal number of male and The school female teachers.  insist

Complete the story with the verbs in brackets and the correct modal verbs, verb forms or tenses. Yesterday, I was trying to get to sleep when I heard my dog barking. I got up and my dog was there with some (let) it paper in his mouth. I told him (1) go. I pulled, and the piece of paper tore. I suddenly realized it was my maths homework and asked my (come) and have a look. When mum (2) she saw what had happened, she just laughed. I said it (be not) funny and I (4) (3) (have to) do it all over again, but my mum said it (be) too late. She promised she (5) (write) a note to the teacher in the (6) (not worry). However, morning and said I (7) the next morning my mum got a call from work before (call) I got up. They told her someone (8) (go) in early. in sick and asked her if she (9) She completely forgot about the note. So of course, in my maths class, when the teacher asked why I (not do) my homework and (10) I explained, he didn’t believe me! His exact words were, (think) I was born yesterday?’ ‘Do you (11) (be) exactly what But I swear that (12) happened!

Complete the second sentences so they have a similar meaning to the first sentences. Use between two and five words, including the correct form of the verb in bold.

  4

Decide which two options are possible in each sentence. 1 My parents advised / recommended / urged my sister to complain to her boss about it. 2 He’s been blamed / accused / criticized for not employing enough staff from minority backgrounds. 3 We’ve been trying to tell / warn / state them that there will be problems if things don’t change! 4 I read online that she’d admitted / apologized / denied sending racist emails. 5 They’ve avoided / promised / refused to tackle the problem. 6 He was arguing / telling / insisting that nothing will change unless people take direct action.

 5

Rewrite each sentence in Exercise 4 using one of the verbs with a different verb pattern. 1 My parents recommended that my sister complain to her boss about it.

Unit 8  Grammar reference and practice  143

Unit 9 

Grammar reference and practice

RELATIVE CLAUSES

We can make a negative by adding not to the participle.

We use relative clauses to add information after nouns. We use different relative pronouns depending on the nouns we are qualifying or on the information that follows.

Students not wearing the correct uniform will be punished.

Defining and non-defining clauses Some relative clauses explain exactly what the thing or person is (defining) and some just add extra information that may be of interest (non-defining). With defining relative clauses: • we don’t use commas. • we can leave out the relative pronoun when it is the object of the relative clause. The devastation (which) it caused was simply staggering! With non-defining relative clauses: • the clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. • we don’t use that as a relative pronoun. • we don’t ever leave out the relative pronoun. The country, which has long been one of the poorest in the world, descended into chaos. We can start a relative clause with a preposition + which / whom. However, this is rather formal in English and we usually place the preposition at the end of the clause. We can also replace a preposition + which with where or when. Crisis mapping brought about change in the place in which / where I was born. Exercises 1 and 2

PARTICIPLE CLAUSES

Exercise 3 Adverbial participle clauses We often use participle clauses to add information about the time or reason / method connected to the main clause. The subject of both clauses must be the same. Having campaigned on behalf of young people, UNICEF also had a key part in the creation of the UN’s Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1989. = After UNICEF had campaigned on behalf of young people, UNICEF also had a key part in the creation of the UN’s Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1989. Using online discussion boards as a ‘meeting place’ the initiative provides a space for youngsters who care. = The initiative uses online discussion boards as a ‘meeting place’ through which the initiative provides a space for youngsters who care. Having seen the robbery, I had to go to court to give evidence. = Because I had seen the robbery I had to go to court to give evidence. -ing participles are more common in this kind of clause, but we can also use -ed participles with passives. Faced with a robber in the street, I would give them whatever they wanted. = If I was faced with a robber in the street, I would give them whatever they wanted. We use the present participle to show an action happens or happened more or less at the same time as the action in the the main clause.

We often reduce a relative clause by using a participle construction.

Working as a policeman, my dad sees a lot of scary things. = My dad is a policeman and while he’s at work, he sees a lot of scary things.

Past participle clauses reduce relative clauses which use a passive verb, whichever tense is used.

A perfect participle (having + -ed) shows the action happened before the action in the main clause.

The UN created a fund called UNICEF. = The UN created a fund which was called UNICEF.

Having just closed the door, I realized I didn’t have my keys. = I had just closed the door when I realized I didn’t have my keys.

Present participle clauses reduce relative clauses which use an active verb, whichever tense is used. The CRC declares different rights including such things as the right to a safe home. = The CRC declares different rights which include such things as the right to a safe home.

144  Unit 9  Grammar reference and practice

Exercise 4

EXERCISES 1

  3

Complete the sentences with these relative pronouns. none of whom which

most of which which is when

that who

 2

1 The policeman who dealt with my case was very helpful. my case was very helpful. The policeman 2 The man who was arrested after the incident last night has not been charged. incident Police have not charged the man last night. 3 The number of young people who are not working or in education is rising. There has been a rise in the number of young people or in education. 4 The number of people who have personally experienced a crime has actually gone down. a crime has The number of people actually gone down. 5 I think that children who are exposed to lots of violent films often become violent themselves. lots of violent films I think that children often become violent themselves. 6 Anyone that the train strike tomorrow will seriously affect can stay at home. by the train strike Anyone seriously tomorrow can stay at home.

where whose

1 One of the first major events to utilize crisis mapping was the 2010 Haiti earthquake, killed and injured hundreds of thousands of people. 2 Technology is particularly relevant in places official government is limited, or no longer fully functions. 3 More than 40 percent of the population now receives is food some form of international aid, assistance. lands have been 4 Many local people, ruined by illegal mining, are now turning to technology to tackle the problem. 5 The plane crashed in thick fog with 87 people on board, is thought to have survived. come from all across the 6 The volunteers, region, quite literally put roads, buildings and highways onto the map. 7 The amount of data available via social media increased the flooding dramatically in October, reached the capital. relies on volunteers with 8 Online mapping varying skills to interpret satellite images obviously has its limitations. Rewrite the sentences in a more informal manner with the prepositions at the end of the clauses. Leave out the relative pronouns where appropriate. 1 The town in which we were staying narrowly missed being hit by the hurricane. The town we were staying in narrowly missed being hit by the hurricane. 2 It’s an achievement of which we are all very proud. 3 The following day, a second, smaller earthquake hit the town from which the aid was being distributed. 4 As we fled the city, we encountered an elderly man with whom my son insisted we shared our food. 5 The roads out of the west of the city, from where many thousands fled, were largely blocked by debris. 6 The experience varies wildly, depending on the charity with which we’re working. 7 On her arrival, Ms. Kuti, with whose approach I totally agreed, took control of the situation. 8 The book to which you’re referring was the very first on the subject to be published.

Rewrite the following sentences using a participle clause.

4

Reduce the underlined clauses. Police are searching for a man (1) who has been accused of attempting to rob a bank in Vienna today. A man wearing a bright red scarf (2) which was wrapped around his face approached a cashier and told her he wanted money. (3) Because she didn’t realize that the man was actually demanding money, the clerk simply said that she didn’t deal with cash enquiries, (4) and at the same time directed him to the next counter. Apparently, (5) because he was put off by the long queue at the next counter and the clerk’s calm reply, the man dropped the box he was carrying and ran off. (6) After she had seen the man run off, the cashier suddenly realized what had happened. (7) Because they were concerned that the box looked suspicious, the bank called the police and evacuated the building. The package was found to be harmless and the robber rather useless.

Unit 9  Grammar reference and practice  145

Unit 10 

Grammar reference and practice

EXPRESSING PAST ABILITY

EMPHATIC STRUCTURES

When we talk about specific situations or tell stories and we want to talk about ability or inability to do something we use could, be able to, or manage to.

We can stress an auxiliary verb like is or have to add emphasis. When there is no auxiliary verb available to stress as with verbs in the present and past simple, we can add emphasis by putting do / does / did before an infinitive.

We use could to express if something was possible in a specific situation. We use couldn’t to show it wasn’t possible to do something in a specific situation. He couldn’t move his arm because it was trapped by a rock. We also use could with other words related to negatives. No-one could send for help. All he could do was wait. I was so nervous I could hardly say a word. To talk about a specific ability to do something at a particular time in the past, we usually use was / were able to rather than could. She managed to deal with the pain, and in the end, was able to turn it into great art. We can make negatives with not able to, unable to or couldn't. I wasn’t able / was unable to / couldn’t feel or say anything, I was in such shock. We also use be able to with other tenses and modals, where could is not possible. At least we’ve could we’ve been able to agree on one film. Could usually describes a general ability in the past while manage to emphasizes an ability to do something that was difficult. We don’t usually use it to talk about general ideas or senses. When it rained, he could catch managed to catch some water to drink. Manage to often goes with words and phrases such as finally / in the end / eventually. We can use manage to in a negative sentence a similar way to couldn’t. I looked for ages but I didn’t manage to / couldn’t find it. We sometimes use succeed in + -ing instead of manage to, but manage to is far more common. She succeeded in making it as a professional. = She managed to make it as a professional. Exercises 1–3

146  Unit 10  Grammar reference and practice

It did make a huge difference to my quality of life, having the implant. We often add emphasis like this when we are contradicting what someone has said, or contrasting two opposing ideas. While surgical options did exist before, none were nearly as effective. We can also add emphasis by starting a clause with a negative adverb or phrase (rarely, not only, etc.) and then using inversion (changing the order of the subject and verb as we do in questions). We’re all used to hearing news about terrible things, but rarely do we hear much about exciting new developments. When Second Sight started experimenting, little did they know that they were on their way to revolutionizing the treatment of blindness! Only after the Second World War were antibiotics more widely available to the general public. Note that inversion is far more common in academic, literary or journalistic writing, though it is also used in more formal speech or to make stories more dramatic. Exercises 4 and 5

3 After the accident, it was only because of the surgery that he didn’t lose his eyesight. save He damaged his eye in the accident, but the surgeon his eyesight.

EXERCISES 1

Complete the article about Aron Ralston with one word in each gap. If the story of Aron Ralston’s escape from a canyon was remarkable, what happened next is no less so. Immediately after freeing himself, he still had to return to safety. With only one arm and still bleeding, he to get down a 20-metre cliff and then (1) walk several kilometres in the burning sun. By luck, he met a family walking in the valley who (2) able to give him something to eat and drink and then look for help. Then, a helicopter which was out searching to pick him up. This all for him was (3) happened within four hours and saved his life. Following only the accident, the park authorities (4) remove the rock that had trapped Aron’s arm by using a machine and several men. While medics were to save Aron’s arm, he otherwise made (5) a full recovery and returned to full fitness. Amazingly, able to do pretty much since then he’s (6) all the things he did before the accident. He has since rafted down the Grand Canyon, skied down a volcano in in climbing all Ecuador and, in 2011 he (7) the mountains in Colorado that are over 14 thousand feet. He also now works as a motivational speaker.

 2

4 She lost most of her hearing after the accident, but she seems to be back to normal now. hear She’s recovered really well, considering she a thing after the accident. 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

While they do remove the immediate pain, I do think that medical research is incredibly important, Don’t get me wrong. The operation did help – Only after several tests did they At no time during my stay in hospital did I Nowhere else in the world do you Let’s be clear about this. In no way does this development 8 We read a lot about medical developments, but rarely do we a think I wouldn’t make a complete recovery. b hear about the psychological advances in managing disease. c but I don’t see why it can’t all be privately funded. d diagnose the problem. e find so many 100-year olds than in Okinawa, Japan. f drugs are not the only solution and can create problems of their own. g mean the disease has been cured, but it’s a step in the right direction. h just not as much as I was hoping it would.

Correct the error underlined in each sentence. You may need to change, add and / or remove words. 1 I twisted my ankle quite badly, but I still manage walk home. It was really painful, though. I twisted my ankle quite badly, but I still managed to walk home. It was really painful, though. 2 Following physiotherapy, Janine Shepherd were able walk again with the help of a stick. 3 Doctors have been looking for a cure for motor neurone disease but they couldn’t find one yet. 4 After years of research, scientists believe they have finally succeeded the development a treatment for diabetes which avoids the need to inject insulin. 5 I wish I could meet my grandfather before he died. He sounded like an amazing person.

 3

Rewrite the second sentences using the word in bold and the correct form of could, be able to, manage to or succeed in. 1 Bethany Hamilton became a world champion surfer despite losing her arm in an accident. becoming Bethany Hamilton lost her arm in an accident but still a world champion surfer. 2 Luckily, we stopped the bleeding and he was fine. stop We the bleeding and he was fine.

Make complete sentences by matching the halves.

 5

Complete the sentences with these words. at no time not until

little only

not only rarely

1 What made things even worse was the fact that did doctors ever admit they’d made a mistake. 2 In the days before antibiotics, only very did children survive serious lung infections. after the Second World War did penicillin 3 become widely available. did I 4 When the doctor first suggested it, realize that the treatment was actually centuries old. do we need a massive increase in 5 investment, but we also need to rethink the way we educate the young about physical and mental well-being. in this country do people go bankrupt 6 from trying to pay their medical bills!

Unit 10  Grammar reference and practice  147

Irregular verb list

INfinitive

Simple Past

Past participle

INfinitive

Simple Past

Past participle

arise beat become bend bet bite blow break breed bring broadcast build

arose beat became bent bet bit blew broke bred brought broadcast built

arisen beaten become bent bet bitten blown broken bred brought broadcast built

overcome rethink ring rise sell set shake shine shoot shrink shut sink

overcame rethought rang rose sold set shook shone shot shrank shut sank

overcome rethought rung risen sold set shaken shone shot shrunk shut sunk

burn

burned / burnt

burned / burnt

slide

slid

slid

burst cost cut deal dig dream fall

burst cost cut dealt dug dreamed / dreamt fell

burst cost cut dealt dug dreamed / dreamt fallen

smell spell spend spill split spoil spread

smelled / smelt spelled / spelt spent spilt split spoiled / spoilt spread

smelled / smelt spelled / spelt spent spilt split spoiled / spoilt spread

feed fight flee forget forgive freeze grow hang hide hit hold hurt keep kneel lay lead lend let lie light lose mean misunderstand must

fed fought fled forgot forgave froze grew hanged / hung hid hit held hurt kept knelt laid led lent let lay lit lost meant misunderstood had to

fed fought fled forgotten forgiven frozen grown hanged / hung hidden hit held hurt kept knelt laid led lent let lain lit lost meant misunderstood had to

stand steal stick strike swear tear throw upset wake win

stood stole stuck struck swore tore threw upset woke won

stood stolen stuck struck sworn torn thrown upset woken won

148  Irregular verb list

writing bank

Unit 1  A review When we write reviews, it is common to use relative clauses beginning with which in order to express personal comments or beliefs.

1 Wu and Ting Ting were incredibly welcoming and did everything that they could to make me feel at home, although during the stay I was often left to my own devices as they were busy working. I had a lovely big room, my own TV and a desk to study at. I was a bit far from my school, though, which wasn’t ideal. 2 I can’t complain about the place as a whole. There were plenty of rides, which kept the kids satisfied, but given that the price for a family of four for the day was $195, it’s just not worth it. Not when you realize that Fantasyland is cheaper. What’s more, the queues are longer than at Fantasy as it is packed with locals. If it hadn’t been as full and we’d actually got to go on more than three rides in seven hours – and it was less expensive – it might have been worth it. As it is, though, I’d give it a miss and go to Fantasyland instead. 3 After I’d checked in and been given my key, I found that my room wasn’t much bigger than a shoebox! Feeling that this simply wouldn’t work for a four-night stay, I went back down to the front desk and asked for a larger room. They then tried to charge me €40 per night to upgrade to a suitable room, which was ridiculous. We finally agreed on nine euros per night for the upgrade. On top of that, parking was €15 a day! Terrible place with terrible service. They’re trying to make as much extra money as they can. I’m scared to ask for another pillow, which is necessary as the bed only has one! 4 If you like to see and be seen, then grab yourself one of the outdoor seats here, order a coffee, sit back and enjoy! Looking out over the main square, and close to the museum and the market, this is a great people-watching spot – and it does great breakfasts, lunches and snacks as well, which is perfect if you’re feeling hungry. I can’t recommend it enough.

Unit 2  A persuasive article We can grab the reader's attention by asking a have you ever … question to stimulate a shared experience.

We present factual information related to the solution.

Young entrepreneur trying to turn a nightmare into a dream business Have you ever spent hours working on a project and saved it to your USB stick only to then lose your stick – and all your work? You know you should have backed it up, but it’s easy to forget, isn’t it? And then you have to explain it to your teacher or boss. Awful! Well, all that might soon be a thing of the past thanks to the bright idea of a 16-year-old entrepreneur from Northern Ireland. Mason Robinson has invented a piece of software that automatically backs up your work to the cloud when you save your work to a stick. As Mason says, ‘it has a unique aspect in saving people’s work twice!’ He developed the i-save USB idea as part of a summer project at a local science park. Now he is trying to raise two thousand dollars through a Kickstarter campaign to improve the product and distribute it. So why don’t you support Mason to make his business dreams a reality and, at the same time, end the nightmare of lost homework and research?

We can persuade the reader to continue reading by saying that we will provide a solution.

We provide a reason why the reader should take action in the final paragraph.

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Writing banK

Unit 3  A survey We start reporting findings by referring the reader to the source of results and explaining the aim of the investigation. We explain the most important statistics related to our aim.

This bar chart shows the results of a survey carried out on 50 people aged between 13 and 55. The aim of the survey was to find out levels of participation in sport in the four weeks before the interview. During this time, 68 percent of those interviewed walked for health and recreation, about one in six cycled and over half did some kind of sport. As can be seen from the chart, the most popular sport during this month was swimming and diving, with almost 15 percent of those questioned trying it at least once. This was followed closely by various health and fitness activities. Obviously, these results were determined to at least some degree by the weather. If the survey were to be repeated in the summer rather than the winter, we might, for instance, expect the popularity of football and golf to increase. Among the people who did not take part in any sport during the month in question, the main reasons given for not participating were lack of time, expense and general poor health.

We account for the results and explain how we might make the statistics more reliable. We may choose to give a further description of interesting findings.

Unit 4  A for and against essay In the opening paragraph of a for and against essay, we demonstrate why the subject is relevant now. We state the advantages of the the topic first and follow this with the limitations.

Over recent years, tourism has become more important to the local economy. As the area attracts more tourists, it is only natural that local officials should be thinking about ways of promoting the region further. It has been claimed that the creation of a new museum would boost visitor numbers. However, I believe that such a plan would not have as positive an impact as other possible options. One argument in favour of a big new museum is that it would put the region on the map and draw in visitors, who would then spend money on accommodation, transport and food. In addition to this, it would create jobs – initially in construction and then within the building. Finally, museums are often seen as being good for the wider community as they help educate people. However, a museum would be expensive. It might be better to spend that money on other areas of the local community. Local schools and hospitals could be improved greatly if a similar sum of money were made available, and this would benefit a wider range of people. In addition, it is worth asking how many local people would actually visit a new museum. There is already a small museum in town and it is almost always empty. In conclusion, while a new museum might bring limited benefits and lead to the creation of some jobs, other choices are preferable. Investment in vital facilities may not bring more tourists, but would create a more skilled, healthier and happier society.

150  Writing bank

We can introduce our opposing argument or point of view by using the passive and signal we disagree by using words or phrases like however. We then provide our own opinion.

Finally, we take notice of both sides of the argument and state our position.

writing bank

Unit 5  A scientific method When we write a scientific method, we start by introducing the process. We can use phrases like in order to to explain why certain steps were taken in the process.

Words linking the steps of the process are used.

The Blackawton Bee experiment

The experiment aimed to discover if bees could think in the same ways as humans. The experiment was carried out using a large transparent box called the Bee Arena. The arena contained coloured circles representing flowers which had small holes in them that could be filled with sugar water to attract the bees. Before the experiment was started, the bees were marked individually to identify them. In order to do this, forager bees (bees that fly about looking for and collecting pollen) were let into the bee arena. Once all the bees were inside the arena, the lights were turned off in order to make them stop flying. The bees were then picked up using tweezers and put into a pot with a lid. The pot was then placed in a fridge so that the bees would fall asleep. Once they had fallen asleep, the bees were removed from the pot one at a time and painted with different coloured dots. Finally, the bees were returned to the pot and warmed up before being released back into the bee arena.

Unit 6  A problem-solution essay We use topic sentences to start each paragraph. These sentences introduce and express the main idea of the paragraph.

We can refer to sources to strengthen our argument.

How can we help save tigers?

(1) Tigers are hunted and sold for their fur and other parts. They are losing the habitats they live in and they are shot by local people because they kill farm animals. In this essay, I will suggest solutions to these three problems. (2) In the US, there may be over 9,000 tigers that are kept as pets, for example. They are sold easily and Mills says that can encourage the trade of wild tigers because people want ‘the real thing’. (3) Tigers do not recognize borders, so the area they live in can be in more than one country. According to takepart.com, several countries met and agreed to take action together to save tigers. It has had some success, but they could do more. (4) National Geographic Explorer Krithi Karanth says that sometimes farmers cannot earn enough money to survive because of wildlife destroying their crops and animals. We need to compensate them so they do not take revenge on endangered species like tigers.

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Writing banK

Unit 7  A report We use the title to show what the report is about.

We explain the purpose of the report in the introduction.

Subheadings are added to each paragraph.

Improving learning in the library Purpose The purpose of this report is to find out why so much external noise can be heard in the school library. The report will also make recommendations on how to reduce noise and create a better atmosphere to study in. Background Students frequently complain about the noise in the school library and many choose not to use the space at all. Methods of investigation In order to better understand the issues, we visited the library twice and read about how sound travels through different materials. We then explored a range of possible solutions before making our own models, which we used to test our ideas. Findings The library windows face a public space and, even when closed, let too much noise through. This problem is made worse by the fact that the curtains in the room are made from a thin material that does not stop sound in any way.

We finish a report by making recommendations, if necessary.

Recommendations To solve this problem, we would recommend installing two sheets of glass in each window. Perhaps we could also consider filling the space between the glass with water. This would prevent up to 75 percent of the outside noise from entering the room.

Unit 8  A complaint We say what the general problem is in the first sentence and give details about the problem – including examples – in the first paragraph. We can explain how the problem has affected us. We complete a complaint by asking for some kind of action.

Dear Sir/Madam, I am writing to complain about the recent reporting on the issue of immigration in your paper. In your reports, you frequently suggest that migrants who come to this country are looking for benefits and are involved in crime. While there are obviously unemployed people or criminals among the migrant population, official statistics show that there is a larger percentage among people who were born here. You have also used language such as ‘swarm’ and ‘flood’, which suggests migrants are not human and are a dangerous problem. As the granddaughter of an immigrant, I find use of this language very upsetting and I think that if a paper uses it, it often makes other people feel they can say similar things. My grandfather worked hard to make a home here. And for me it IS my home, but your reporting makes me feel I am not a normal citizen. I am not saying you should stop campaigning for immigration controls. Everyone has a right to their point of view. However, I would like you to stop using these stereotypes and generalizations to make your point. We are all individuals, but migrants are also all individuals like us - just born in a different place. Yours sincerely, Maria Asare

152  Writing bank

writing bank

Unit 9  A letter of application We start a letter of application by referring to the advertisement or posting that we saw.

We explain who we are, where we are from and our plans for the future.

Dear sir / madam, I am writing in response to your advertisement looking for volunteers to rebuild a school in Belize. I would be most grateful if you could send me more information about this opportunity and details of how to apply.

We explain why we are writing.

My name is Melanie Gleich and I am 17 years old. I am from Aachen in Germany. I am currently in my last year of high school and will be taking my final exams next spring. I hope to then go on to study Spanish and Latin American Studies at university. In terms of what I would bring to the project, I already have a good level of both Spanish and English, and having travelled widely, I am used to being around people from other cultures. I am also prepared to get my hands dirty and help out in any way I can. I do a lot of sport and would say I have a good level of fitness, so I feel confident that I would be able to cope with the manual work.

We explain any skills and abilities we have which would make us suitable for the job.

In addition, I have some experience of both gardening and farming as my grandparents live on a farm and I usually spend the summers helping out there. I am also an excellent team player and like to think I possess good social skills. I hope you feel I am suitable for the post and look forward to hearing from you soon. Yours sincerely, Melanie Gleich

Unit 10  A success story When we write success stories, we usually explain how we felt before we succeeded.

‘Stop!’ my teacher whispered loudly. ‘Look over there.’ I had been dreading this moment – almost hoping we wouldn’t find one. But there it was – a python lying in the grass. I hated snakes. I’d never even touched one. My usual reaction would have been to run away screaming, but I had no choice this time. It was a field trip for my biology course and not only did we have to look for them, we had to catch one too! There was a group of us. I had to put a special stick at the back of its head while my teacher and other students got hold of it. At least this way I wouldn’t have to touch it. We had practised lots of times with a plastic snake in the college. We crept nearer. My hands started to sweat; my heart started beating like a train. The snake didn’t move. And then it all happened in a flash! I put the stick behind its neck and the others leapt over and grabbed it.

We explain how we felt after succeeding.

As the others held the snake down and measured it, I forced myself to touch it. I finally managed to do it! Little did I know how nice they actually felt! That day changed my life. Rather than being disgusted by snakes, I became fascinated by them, and now I plan to do lots of research on them.

We use descriptive verbs to make the story more exciting.

Writing bank  153

Word Lists

Unit 1 accessible (adj) alongside (prep) anxiety (n) B&B (n) ban (v) basically (adv) be up for (phr v) break down (phr v) budget (adj) cause (v) come across (phr v) come down to (phr v) community (n) culture shock (n) date back (phr v) deal (n) decline (n) established (adj) evaluate (v) extensive (adj) fluent (adj) food poisoning (n) genuinely (adv) get a (real) feel for (phr v) get used to (phr v) grand (adj) hang out (phr v) hiking (n) honesty (n) host family (n) ideal (adj) incredibly (adv) independence (n) individual (n) influence (v) investment (n) keep in touch (phrase) left to (your) own devices (phrase) legal (adj) lie around (phr v) look after (phr v) look back (phr v) major (adj) media (n) move on (phr v) necessarily (adv) negotiate (v) off the beaten track (phrase) opt (v) overseas (adv) participant (n) perspective (n) pick up (phr v) prawn (n) pull up (phr v) queue up (phr v) reinforce (v) reliability (n) reputation (n)

154  Word lists

/əkˈsesəb(ə)l/ /əˈlɒŋˌsaɪd/ /æŋˈzaɪəti/ /biː æn biː/ /bæn/ /ˈbeɪsɪkli/ /ˌbiːʌpfɔː(r)/ /ˌbreɪkˈdaʊn/ /ˈbʌdʒɪt/ /kɔːz/ /ˌkʌməˈkrɒs/ /ˌkʌmˈdaʊntuː/ /kəˈmjuːnəti/ /ˈkʌltʃə(r) ˌʃɒk/ /ˌdeɪt ˈbæk/ /diːl/ /dɪˈklaɪn/ /ɪˈstæblɪʃt/ /ɪˈvæljueɪt/ /ɪkˈstensɪv/ /ˈfluːənt/ /ˈfuːd ˌpɔɪz(ə)nɪŋ/ /ˈdʒenjuɪnli/ /ˌgetə(rɪəl)ˈfiːl fɔː(r)/ /ˌgetˈjuːzdtuː/ /ɡrænd/ /ˌhæŋˈaʊt/ /ˈhaɪkɪŋ/ /ˈɒnɪsti/ /ˈhəʊstˌfæmɪli/ /aɪˈdɪəl/ /ɪnˈkredəbli/ /ˌɪndɪˈpendəns/ /ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəl/ /ˈɪnfluəns/ /ɪnˈves(t)mənt/ /ˌkiːpɪnˈtʌʧ/ /ˌlefttuː(jɔː(r)) əʊndɪˈvaɪsɪz/ /ˈliːɡ(ə)l/ /ˌlaɪəˈraʊnd/ /ˌlʊkˈɑːftə/ /ˌlʊkˈbæk/ /ˈmeɪdʒə(r)/ /ˈmiːdiə/ /ˌmuːvˈɒn/ /ˈnesəsərəli/ /nɪˈɡəʊʃieɪt/ /ɒfðəˌbi:t(ə)n ˈtræk/ /ɒpt/ /ˈəʊvə(r)siːz/ /pɑː(r)ˈtɪsɪpənt/ /pə(r)ˈspektɪv/ /ˌpɪkˈʌp/ /prɔːn/ /ˌpʊlˈʌp/ /ˌkjuːˈʌp/ /ˌriːɪnˈfɔː(r)s/ /rɪˌlaɪəˈbɪlɪti/ /ˌrepjʊˈteɪʃ(ə)n/

resource (n) restriction (n) revolution (n) ridiculous (adj) rob (v) robbery (n) roots (n) rush (v) servant (n) sights (n) similarity (n) simply (adv) spread (v) standard (n) stare (v) step out (phr v) strongly (adv) suffer (v) trip up (phr v) turn out (phr v) tutor (n) upgrade (n) upgrade (v) vice versa (adv) wealth (n) welcoming (adj)

/rɪˈzɔː(r)s/ /rɪˈstrɪkʃ(ə)n/ /ˌrevəˈluːʃ(ə)n/ /rɪˈdɪkjʊləs/ /rɒb/ /ˈrɒbəri/ /ruːts/ /rʌʃ/ /ˈsɜː(r)v(ə)nt/ /saɪts/ /ˌsɪməˈlærəti/ /ˈsɪmpli/ /spred/ /ˈstændə(r)d/ /steə(r)/ /ˌstepˈaʊt/ /ˈstrɒŋli/ /ˈsʌfə(r)/ /ˌtrɪpˈʌp/ /ˌtɜː(r)nˈaʊt/ /ˈtjuːtə(r)/ /ʌpˈɡreɪd/ /ʌpˈɡreɪd/ /ˌvaɪsi ˈvɜː(r)sə/ /welθ/ /ˈwelkəmɪŋ/

Unit 2 (a) matter (of) (phrase) adapt (v) aspect (n) assume (v) attach (v) automatically (adv) backup (n) banking (n) bargain (n) barrier (n) be based (phr v) beg (v) businessperson (n) campaign (n) capable (adj) climate change (n) code (n) confirm (v) corporate (adj) cut down (phr v) data (n) demonstrate (v) detect (v) discourage (v) distant (adj) distribute (v) distribution (n) diverse (adj) edit (v) email (n) entrepreneur (n) eventually (adv) executive (adj) expand (v)

/(ə)ˈmætə(r) (əv)/ /əˈdæpt/ /ˈæspekt/ /əˈsjuːm/ /əˈtætʃ/ /ˌɔːtəˈmætɪkli/ /ˈbækʌp/ /ˈbæŋkɪŋ/ /ˈbɑː(r)ɡɪn/ /ˈbæriə(r)/ /ˌbiːˈbeɪst/ /beɡ/ /ˈbɪznəsˌpɜː(r)s(ə)n/ /kæmˈpeɪn/ /ˈkeɪpəb(ə)l/ /ˈklaɪmɪtˌʧeɪnʤ/ /kəʊd/ /kənˈfɜː(r)m/ /ˈkɔː(r)p(ə)rət/ /ˌkʌtˈdaʊn/ /ˈdeɪtə/ /ˈdemənˌstreɪt/ /dɪˈtekt/ /dɪsˈkʌrɪdʒ/ /ˈdɪstənt/ /dɪˈstrɪbjuːt/ /ˌdɪstrɪˈbjuːʃ(ə)n/ /daɪˈvɜː(r)s/ /ˈedɪt/ /ˈiːmeɪl/ /ˌɒntrəprəˈnɜː(r)/ /ɪˈventʃuəli/ /ɪɡˈzekjʊtɪv/ /ɪkˈspænd/

export (v) failure (n) filter (n) fund (n) fund (v) gender (n) go too far (phrase) guarantee (v) handle (v) harvest (v) illegal (adj) impressive (adj) inbox (n) infect (v) intrigue (v) invent (v) investor (n) knock (sth) on the head (phrase) leadership (n) majority (n) market (v) network (v) origin (n) out of hand (phrase) permission (n) post (v) potential (n) pressure (n) profile (n) profit (n) publisher (n) put together (phr v) raise money (phr v) reality (n) recover (v) relate (v) risk (n) scam (n) self (n) social media (n) solar (adj) source (n) spam (n) statement (n) store (v) strategy (n) summarize (v) supplier (n) tribe (n) turn up (phr v) USB stick (n) victim (n) wealthy (adj)

/ˈekspɔː(r)t/ /ˈfeɪljə(r)/ /ˈfɪltə(r)/ /fʌnd/ /fʌnd/ /ˈdʒendə(r)/ /ˌgəʊtuːˈfɑː(r)/ /ˌɡærənˈtiː/ /ˈhænd(ə)l/ /ˈhɑː(r)vɪst/ /ɪˈliːɡ(ə)l/ /ɪmˈpresɪv/ /ˈɪnˌbɒks/ /ɪnˈfekt/ /ɪnˈtriːɡ/ /ɪnˈvent/ /ɪnˈvestə(r)/ /ˌnɒk ɒn ðə ˈhɛd/ /ˈliːdə(r)ʃɪp/ /məˈdʒɒrəti/ /ˈmɑː(r)kɪt/ /ˈnetˌwɜː(r)k/ /ˈɒrɪdʒɪn/ /ˌaʊtəvˈhænd/ /pə(r)ˈmɪʃ(ə)n/ /pəʊst/ /pəˈtenʃ(ə)l/ /ˈpreʃə(r)/ /ˈprəʊfaɪl/ /ˈprɒfɪt/ /ˈpʌblɪʃə(r)/ /ˌpʊttəˈɡeðə(r)/ /ˌreɪzˈmʌni/ /riˈæləti/ /rɪˈkʌvə(r)/ /rɪˈleɪt/ /rɪsk/ /skæm/ /self/ /ˌsəʊʃəl ˈmiːdiə/ /ˈsəʊlə(r)/ /sɔː(r)s/ /spæm/ /ˈsteɪtmənt/ /stɔː(r)/ /ˈstrætədʒi/ /ˈsʌməˌraɪz/ /səˈplaɪə(r)/ /traɪb/ /ˌtɜː(r)nˈʌp/ /juː es ˈbiːˌstɪk/ /ˈvɪktɪm/ /ˈwelθi/

Word Lists

Unit 3 accelerate (v) advance (n) agree with (phr v) amount (n) anticipate (v) athletic (adj) attitude (n) awareness (n) billion (n) brand (n) bronze (adj) captain (v) championship (n) change the face of (phrase) chart (n) choose (v) closely (adv) compete (v) conquer (v) debt (n) determine (v) educational (adj) elite (adj) energetic (adj) entire (adv) essentially (adv) establish (v) evolution (n) evolve (v) exception (n) expense (n) fade away (phr v) fame (n) formal (adj) forward (n) funding (n) gardening (adj) glory (n) goal (n) greatly (adv) hold (a record) (v) host (v) injury (n) instantly (adv) intensively (adv) junk food (n) largely (adv) long-term (adj) marathon (n) medal (n) money (n) muscle (n) nation (n) participate (v) pay off (phr v) percentage (n) personality (n) play a key role in (phrase) popularity (n) positive role model (phrase)

/əkˈseləreɪt/ /ədˈvɑːns/ /əˈgriː wɪð/ /əˈmaʊnt/ /ænˈtɪsɪpeɪt/ /æθˈletɪk/ /ˈætɪtjuːd/ /əˈweə(r)nəs/ /ˈbɪljən/ /brænd/ /brɒnz/ /ˈkæptɪn/ /ˈtʃæmpiənʃɪp/ /ˌʧeɪnʤðə ˈfeɪsɒv/ /tʃɑː(r)t/ /tʃuːz/ /ˈkləʊsli/ /kəmˈpiːt/ /ˈkɒŋkə(r)/ /det/ /dɪˈtɜː(r)mɪn/ /ˌedjʊˈkeɪʃ(ə)nəl/ /ɪˈliːt/ /ˌenə(r)ˈdʒetɪk/ /ɪnˈtaɪə(r)/ /ɪˈsenʃ(ə)li/ /ɪˈstæblɪʃ/ /ˌiːvəˈluːʃ(ə)n/ /ɪˈvɒlv/ /ɪkˈsepʃ(ə)n/ /ɪkˈspens/ /ˌfeɪdəˈweɪ/ /feɪm/ /ˈfɔː(r)m(ə)l/ /ˈfɔː(r)wə(r)d/ /ˈfʌndɪŋ/ /ˈɡɑː(r)d(ə)nɪŋ/ /ˈɡlɔːri/ /ɡəʊl/ /ˈɡreɪtli/ /ˌhəʊld (ə ˈrekɔː(r)d)/ /həʊst/ /ˈɪndʒəri/ /ˈɪnstəntli/ /ɪnˈtensɪvli/ /ˈdʒʌŋk fuːd/ /ˈlɑː(r)dʒli/ /ˈlɒŋˌtɜːm/ /ˈmærəθ(ə)n/ /ˈmed(ə)l/ /ˈmʌni/ /ˈmʌs(ə)l/ /ˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ /pɑː(r)ˈtɪsɪpeɪt/ /ˌpeɪ ˈɒf/ /pə(r)ˈsentɪdʒ/ /ˌpɜː(r)səˈnæləti/ /ˌpleɪəˌkiːˈrəʊl ɪn/ /ˌpɒpjʊˈlærəti/ /ˌpɒzətɪvˈrəʊl ˌmɒd(e)l/

preferably (adv) principle (n) psychological (adj) question (v) quote (n) ranking (n) real passion (phrase) recreation (n) represent (v) role model (n) roughly (adv) schedule (n) season (n) select (v) set (a new record) (v) set up (v) shrink (v) similarly (adv) slightly (adv) slow down (phr v) smash (v) specialize (v) specific (adj) spirit (n) stamina (n) status (n) subsequently (adv) subway (n) suit (v) sum (n) surface (n) tackle (v) target (n) technique (n) technological (adj) tend to (phr v) terminal (n) throughout (prep) top (adj) vast (adj)

/ˈpref(ə)rəbli/ /ˈprɪnsəp(ə)l/ /ˌsaɪkəˈlɒdʒɪk(ə)l/ /ˈkwestʃ(ə)n/ /kwəʊt/ /ˈræŋkɪŋ/ /ˌrɪəlˈpæʃən/ /ˌrekriˈeɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˌreprɪˈzent/ /ˈrəʊlˌmɒd(ə)l/ /ˈrʌfli/ /ˈʃedjuːl/ /ˈsiːz(ə)n/ /sɪˈlekt/ /ˌset (ə njuː ˈrekɔː(r)d)/ /ˌset ˈʌp/ /ʃrɪŋk/ /ˈsɪmələ(r)li/ /ˈslaɪtli/ /ˌsləʊˈdaʊn/ /smæʃ/ /ˈspeʃəlaɪz/ /spəˈsɪfɪk/ /ˈspɪrɪt/ /ˈstæmɪnə/ /ˈsteɪtəs/ /ˈsʌbsɪkwəntli/ /ˈsʌbˌweɪ/ /suːt/ /sʌm/ /ˈsɜː(r)fɪs/ /ˈtæk(ə)l/ /ˈtɑː(r)ɡɪt/ /tekˈniːk/ /ˌteknəˈlɒdʒɪk(ə)l/ /ˈtɛndtuː/ /ˈtɜː(r)mɪn(ə)l/ /θruːˈaʊt/ /tɒp/ /vɑːst/

Unit 4 actual (adj) /ˈæktʃuəl/ authority (n) /ɔːˈθɒrəti/ behind (prep) /bɪˈhaɪnd/ boost (v) /buːst/ carnival (n) /ˈkɑː(r)nɪv(ə)l/ choir (n) /kwaɪə(r)/ cinema (n) /ˈsɪnəmə/ claim (v) /kleɪm/ comedy club (n) /ˈkɒmədiˌklʌb/ commitment (n) /kəˈmɪtmənt/ confidence (n) /ˈkɒnfɪd(ə)ns/ construction (n) /kənˈstrʌkʃ(ə)n/ costume (n) /ˈkɒstjuːm/ creation (n) /kriˈeɪʃ(ə)n/ creativity (n) /ˌkriːeɪˈtɪvəti/ demolish (v) /dɪˈmɒlɪʃ/ desperate (adj) /ˈdesp(ə)rət/ discipline (n) /ˈdɪsəplɪn/ diverse social /daɪˈvɜː(r)s ˌsəʊʃəl background (phrase) ˈbækgraʊnd/

dramatic (adj) /drəˈmætɪk/ driving ambition /ˌdraɪvɪŋ (col) æmˈbɪʃ(ə)n/ duration (n) /djʊˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ economist (n) /ɪˈkɒnəmɪst/ economy (n) /ɪˈkɒnəmi/ educate (v) /ˈedjʊkeɪt/ emphasize (v) /ˈemfəsaɪz/ engagement (n) /ɪnˈɡeɪdʒmənt/ expression (n) /ɪkˈspreʃ(ə)n/ factor (n) /ˈfæktə(r)/ fatal (adj) /ˈfeɪt(ə)l/ festival (n) /ˈfestɪv(ə)l/ figure out (phr v) /ˌfɪgə(r)ˈaʊt/ found (v) /faʊnd/ foundation (n) /faʊnˈdeɪʃ(ə)n/ fulfil (v) /fʊlˈfɪl/ gallery (n) /ˈɡæləri/ gang (n) /ɡæŋ/ generate (v) /ˈdʒenəreɪt/ hard work (col) /ˌhɑː(r)dˈwɜː(r)k/ impact (n) /ˈɪmpækt/ income (n) /ˈɪnkʌm/ industrial (adj) /ɪnˈdʌstriəl/ initially (adv) /ɪˈnɪʃ(ə)li/ innovative scheme (col) /ˌɪnəvətɪvˈskiːm/ inspiration (n) /ˌɪnspəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ lead to (phr v) /ˈliːdtuː/ leading orchestra (col) /ˌliːdɪŋ ˈɔːkɪstrə/ literally (adv) /ˈlɪt(ə)rəli/ low income (adj) /ˌləʊˈɪnkʌm/ mayor (n) /meə(r)/ minister (n) /ˈmɪnɪstə(r)/ minority (n) /maɪˈnɒrəti/ mixed results (phrase) /ˌmɪkstrɪˈzʌlts/ museum (n) /mjuːˈziːəm/ official (adj) /əˈfɪʃ(ə)l/ organizer (n) /ˈɔː(r)ɡəˌnaɪzə(r)/ parade (n) /pəˈreɪd/ physical (adj) /ˈfɪzɪk(ə)l/ poverty (n) /ˈpɒvə(r)ti/ prediction (n) /prɪˈdɪkʃ(ə)n/ preferable (adj) /ˈpref(ə)rəb(ə)l/ pride (n) /praɪd/ private company (col) /ˌpraəvɪtˈkʌmpəni/ process (n) /ˈprəʊses/ professional (n) /prəˈfeʃ(ə)nəl/ public art (col) /ˌpʌblɪkˈɑː(r)t/ redevelopment (n) /ˌriːdɪˈveləpmənt/ rehearsal (n) /rɪˈhɜː(r)s(ə)l/ rehearse (v) /rɪˈhɜː(r)s/ reject (v) /rɪˈdʒekt/ relic (n) /ˈrelɪk/ remarkable (adj) /rɪˈmɑː(r)kəb(ə)l/ rhythm (n) /ˈrɪðəm/ run over (phr v) /ˌrʌnˈəʊvə(r)/ scheme (n) /skiːm/ sell out (phr v) /ˌsel ˈaʊt/ signal (v) /ˈsɪɡn(ə)l/ skilled (adj) /skɪld/ stand for (phr v) /ˈstændfɔː(r)/ straightforward /ˌstreɪtˈfɔː(r)wə(r)d process (col) ˈprəʊsɛs/ strict set (col) /strɪkt sɛt/ struggling (adj) /ˈstrʌɡ(ə)lɪŋ/

Word lists  155

Word Lists supposedly (adv) take charge (phr v) theatre (n) venue (n) violence (n) vital (adj) volunteer (n)

/səˈpəʊzɪdli/ /ˌteɪkˈʧɑː(r)ʤ/ /ˈθɪətə(r)/ /ˈvenjuː/ /ˈvaɪələns/ /ˈvaɪt(ə)l/ /ˌvɒlənˈtɪə(r)/

Unit 5 alter (v) arm (v) assignment (n) beautiful (adj) belief (n) bother (v) browser (n) bubble (n) bulb (n) capacity (n) chemical (n) circumstance (n) conduct (v) consume (v) cooperation (n) cooperative (adj) curiosity (n) deadline (n) determining (adj) discovery (n) dissolve (v) dominant (adj) downwards (adv) effective (adj) electrical (adj) embrace (v) engage (v) evidence (n) function (n) genius (n) grasp (n) harm (n) helpful (adj) hopeful (adj) identify (v) imaginative (adj) innovation (n) innovative (adj) intelligence (n) journal (n) labour (n) lid (n) link (n) listener (n) make matters worse (phrase) mark (v) mature (v) mechanical (adj) medical (adj) mode (n) movement (n) myth (n)

156  Word lists

/ˈɔːltə(r)/ /ɑː(r)m/ /əˈsaɪnmənt/ /ˈbjuːtəf(ə)l/ /bɪˈliːf/ /ˈbɒðə(r)/ /ˈbraʊzə(r)/ /ˈbʌb(ə)l/ /bʌlb/ /kəˈpæsəti/ /ˈkemɪk(ə)l/ /ˈsɜː(r)kəmstəns/ /kənˈdʌkt/ /kənˈsjuːm/ /kəʊˌɒpəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ /kəʊˈɒp(ə)rətɪv/ /ˌkjʊəriˈɒsəti/ /ˈdedˌlaɪn/ /dɪˈtɜː(r)mɪnɪŋ/ /dɪˈskʌv(ə)ri/ /dɪˈzɒlv/ /ˈdɒmɪnənt/ /ˈdaʊnwə(r)dz/ /ɪˈfektɪv/ /iˈlektrɪk(ə)l/ /ɪmˈbreɪs/ /ɪnˈɡeɪdʒ/ /ˈevɪd(ə)ns/ /ˈfʌŋkʃ(ə)n/ /ˈdʒiːniəs/ /ɡrɑːsp/ /hɑː(r)m/ /ˈhelpf(ə)l/ /ˈhəʊpf(ə)l/ /aɪˈdentɪfaɪ/ /ɪˈmædʒɪnətɪv/ /ˌɪnəʊˈveɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˈɪnəveɪtɪv/ /ɪnˈtelɪdʒ(ə)ns/ /ˈdʒɜː(r)n(ə)l/ /ˈleɪbə(r)/ /lɪd/ /lɪŋk/ /ˈlɪs(ə)nə(r)/ /meɪkˈmætə(r)z wɜː(r)s/ /mɑː(r)k/ /məˈtʃʊə(r)/ /mɪˈkænɪk(ə)l/ /ˈmedɪk(ə)l/ /məʊd/ /ˈmuːvmənt/ /mɪθ/

network (n) place (v) pleasurable (adj) pleasure (n) practical (adj) previously (adv) ray (n) reaction (n) reference (n) release (v) researcher (n) return (v) reward (n) sample (n) scan (n) social (adj) society (n) sophisticated (adj) submit (v) substance (n) surgeon (n) surgery (n) surround (v) survey (n) theory (n) threat (n) transform (v) transparent (adj) tremendous (adj) ultimate (adj) uncertainty (n) use (n) useful (adj) version (n) voice (n) warm up (phr v)

/ˈnetˌwɜː(r)k/ /pleɪs/ /ˈpleʒ(ə)rəb(ə)l/ /ˈpleʒə(r)/ /ˈpræktɪk(ə)l/ /ˈpriːviəsli/ /reɪ/ /riˈækʃ(ə)n/ /ˈref(ə)rəns/ /rɪˈliːs/ /rɪˈsɜː(r)tʃə(r)/ /rɪˈtɜː(r)n/ /rɪˈwɔː(r)d/ /ˈsɑːmp(ə)l/ /skæn/ /ˈsəʊʃ(ə)l/ /səˈsaɪəti/ /səˈfɪstɪˌkeɪtɪd/ /səbˈmɪt/ /ˈsʌbstəns/ /ˈsɜː(r)dʒ(ə)n/ /ˈsɜː(r)dʒəri/ /səˈraʊnd/ /ˈsɜː(r)veɪ/ /ˈθɪəri/ /θret/ /trænsˈfɔː(r)m/ /trænsˈpærənt/ /trəˈmendəs/ /ˈʌltɪmət/ /ʌnˈsɜː(r)t(ə)nti/ /juːz/ /ˈjuːsf(ə)l/ /ˈvɜː(r)ʃ(ə)n/ /vɔɪs/

/ˌwɔː(r)mˈʌp/

Unit 6 administration (n) agriculture (n) alarming (adj) anger (n) animal product (n) arise (v) assess (v) aware (adj) breed (v) camp (n) capture (v) catch on (phr v) characteristic (n) chase (v) clue (n) compensate (v) concern (n) consequence (n) conservation (n) constantly (adv) cure (n) die out (phr v) endanger (adj) ensure (v)

/ədˌmɪnɪˈstreɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˈæɡrɪˌkʌltʃə(r)/ /əˈlɑː(r)mɪŋ/ /ˈæŋɡə(r)/ /ˌænɪməlˈprɒdʌkt/ /əˈraɪz/ /əˈses/ /əˈweə(r)/ /briːd/ /kæmp/ /ˈkæptʃə(r)/ /ˌkæʧˈɒn/ /ˌkærɪktəˈrɪstɪk/ /tʃeɪs/ /kluː/ /ˈkɒmpənseɪt/ /kənˈsɜː(r)n/ /ˈkɒnsɪkwəns/ /ˌkɒnsə(r)ˈveɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˈkɒnstəntli/ /kjʊə(r)/ /ˌdaɪˈaʊt/ /ɪnˈdeɪndʒə(r)/ /ɪnˈʃɔː(r)/

equivalent (adj) extinct (adj) fake (adj) feature (n) fox (n) gene (n) genetic (adj) growth (n) habitat (n) historian (n) hit a wall (phrase) hunt (v) indicate (v) influential (adj) inspire (v) interfere (v) mammal (n) mass (adj) misunderstanding (n) mysterious (adj) overcome (v) polar bear (n) proof (n) psychologist (n) purely (adv) put forward (phr v) rainfall (n) rate (n) rethink (v) reveal (v ) revenge (n) save (v) science teacher (n) sea creature (n) shoe leather (n) short-term (adj) shorten (v) significantly (adv) social media campaign (n) species (n) sponsor (v) spot (n) strengthen (v) sudden (adj) surroundings (n) survival (n) survive (v) suspect (v) suspicious (adj) take to (phr v) tropical (adj) underwater (adv) unique (adj) unwilling (adj) volcano (n) willingness (n) wipe out (phr v)

/ɪˈkwɪvələnt/ /ɪkˈstɪŋkt/ /feɪk/ /ˈfiːtʃə(r)/ /fɒks/ /dʒiːn/ /dʒəˈnetɪk/ /ɡrəʊθ/ /ˈhæbɪtæt/ /hɪˈstɔːriən/ /ˌhɪtəˈwɔːl/ /hʌnt/ /ˈɪndɪkeɪt/ /ˌɪnfluˈenʃ(ə)l/ /ɪnˈspaɪə(r)/ /ˌɪntə(r)ˈfɪə(r)/ /ˈmæm(ə)l/ /mæs/ /ˌmɪsʌndə(r) ˈstændɪŋ/ /mɪˈstɪəriəs/ /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈkʌm/ /ˈpəʊləˌbeə(r)/ /pruːf/ /saɪˈkɒlədʒɪst/ /ˈpjʊə(r)li/ /ˌpʊtˈfɔː(r)wə(r)d/ /ˈreɪnˌfɔːl/ /reɪt/ /ˌriːˈθɪŋk/ /rɪˈviːl/ /rɪˈvendʒ/ /seɪv/ /ˈsaɪəns ˈtiːʧə(r)/ /ˈsiː ˌkriːʧə(r)/ /ˈʃuː ˌleðə(r)/ /ˌʃɔː(r)tˈteː(r)m/ /ˈʃɔː(r)t(ə)n/ /sɪgˈnɪfɪkəntli/ /ˌsəʊʃəl ˌmiːdiə kæmˈpeɪn/ /ˈspiːʃiːz/ /ˈspɒnsə(r)/ /spɒt/ /ˈstreŋθ(ə)n/ /ˈsʌd(ə)n/ /səˈraʊndɪŋz/ /sə(r)ˈvaɪv(ə)l/ /sə(r)ˈvaɪv/ /səˈspekt/ /səˈspɪʃəs/ /ˈteɪktuː/ /ˈtrɒpɪk(ə)l/ /ˌʌndə(r)ˈwɔːtə(r)/ /juːˈniːk/ /ʌnˈwɪlɪŋ/ /vɒlˈkeɪnəʊ/ /ˈwɪlɪŋnəs/ /ˌwaɪpˈaʊt/

Word Lists

Unit 7 additional (adj) alternative (adj) analysis (n) analyze (v) approach (n) assessment (n) bacteria (n) break (v) brick (n) combination (n) come up with (phr v) commonly (adv) concerned (adj) conclude (v) conclusion (n) contribute (v) create (v) creative (adj) creatively (adv) demonstration (n) desire (v) detailed (adj) displace (v) electrocute (v) external (adj) extreme (adj) flexibility (n) flexible (adj) fluency (n) follow (v) format (n) freedom (n) functional (adj) genuine (adj) get (your) meaning across (phrase) grab (v) heartbroken (adj) imaginary (adj) implication (n) integrate (v) intelligent (adj) know (v) knowledge (n) learner (n) lifestyle (n) logic (n) logical (adj) make up (phr v) manners (n) needle (n) obey (v) original (n) outcome (n) preference (n) publication (n) publish (v) realistically (adv) recommendation (n) rely on (phr v) resolve (v) safety (n)

/əˈdɪʃ(ə)nəl/ /ɔːlˈtɜː(r)nətɪv/ /əˈnæləsɪs/ /ˈænəlaɪz/ /əˈprəʊtʃ/ /əˈsesmənt/ /bækˈtɪəriə/ /breɪk/ /brɪk/ /ˌkɒmbɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˌkʌmˈʌpˌwɪð/ /ˈkɒmənli/ /kənˈsɜː(r)nd/ /kənˈkluːd/ /kənˈkluːʒ(ə)n/ /kənˈtrɪbjuːt/ /kriˈeɪt/ /kriˈeɪtɪv/ /kri(ː)ˈeɪtɪvli/ /ˌdemənˈstreɪʃ(ə)n/ /dɪˈzaɪə(r)/ /ˈdiːteɪld/ /dɪsˈpleɪs/ /ɪˈlektrəˌkjuːt/ /ɪkˈstɜː(r)n(ə)l/ /ɪkˈstriːm/ /ˌfleksəˈbɪləti/ /ˈfleksəb(ə)l/ /ˈfluːənsi/ /ˈfɒləʊ/ /fɔː(r)mæt/ /ˈfriːdəm/ /ˈfʌŋkʃ(ə)nəl/ /ˈdʒenjuɪn/ /ˌget (jɔː(r)) ˈmiːnɪŋəˌkrɒs/ /ɡræb/ /ˈhɑː(r)tˌbrəʊkən/ /ɪˈmædʒɪnəri/ /ˌɪmplɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˈɪntɪˌɡreɪt/ /ɪnˈtelɪdʒ(ə)nt/ /nəʊ/ /ˈnɒlɪdʒ/ /ˈlɜː(r)nə(r)/ /ˈlaɪfˌstaɪl/ /ˈlɒdʒɪk/ /ˈlɒdʒɪk(ə)l/ /ˌmeɪkˈʌp/ /ˈmænə(r)z/ /ˈniːd(ə)l/ /əˈbeɪ/ /əˈrɪdʒ(ə)nəl/ /ˈaʊtˌkʌm/ /ˈpref(ə)rəns/ /ˌpʌblɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˈpʌblɪʃ/ /ˌrɪəˈlɪstɪkli/ /ˌrekəmenˈdeɪʃ(ə)n/ /rɪˈlaɪ ɒn/ /rɪˈzɒlv/ /ˈseɪfti/

score (v) sketch (n) solution (n) stimulate (v) supervise (v) task (n) treatment (n) truly (adv) usage (n) usefulness (n) variety (n) vary (v) workplace (n) worldwide (adj)

/skɔː(r)/ /sketʃ/ /səˈluːʃ(ə)n/ /ˈstɪmjʊleɪt/ /ˈsuːpə(r)vaɪz/ /tɑːsk/ /ˈtriːtmənt/ /ˈtruːli/ /ˈjuːsɪdʒ/ /ˈjuːsf(ə)lnəs/ /vəˈraɪəti/ /ˈveəri/ /ˈwɜː(r)kˌpleɪs/ /ˌwɜː(r)ldˈwaɪd/

Unit 8  abuse (n) accuse (v) acknowledge (v) apparently (adv) appropriate (adj) associate with (phr v) assumption (n) assure (v) awkward (adj) awkwardness (n) belong (v) breakdown (n) bully (v) campaign (v) cardboard (n) citizen (n) classic (n) combine (v) compliment (v) conscious (adj) conservative (adj) cost-effective (adj) criticize (v) decoration (n) deep-rooted (adj) define (v) deliberately (adv) deny (v) diplomat (n) discriminate (v) dishonest (adj) elect (v) element (n) elsewhere (adv) encounter (v) enthusiasm (n) equality (n) experiment (v) fed up (phr v) fingernail (n) firmly (adv) forget (v) gather (v) generalization (n) global (adj)

/əˈbjuːs/ /əˈkjuːz/ /əkˈnɒlɪdʒ/ /əˈpærəntli/ /əˈprəʊpriət/ /əˈsəʊsiˌeɪt wɪð/ /əˈsʌmpʃ(ə)n/ /əˈʃɔː(r)/ /ˈɔːkwə(r)d/ /ˈɔːkwə(r)dnəs/ /bɪˈlɒŋ/ /ˈbreɪkˌdaʊn/ /ˈbʊli/ /kæmˈpeɪn/ /ˈkɑː(r)dˌbɔː(r)d/ /ˈsɪtɪz(ə)n/ /ˈklæsɪk/ /kəmˈbaɪn/ /ˈkɒmplɪmənt/ /ˈkɒnʃəs/ /kənˈsɜː(r)vətɪv/ /ˌkɒstɪˈfɛktɪv/ /ˈkrɪtɪsaɪz/ /ˌdekəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˌdiːpˈruːtɪd/ /dɪˈfaɪn/ /dɪˈlɪb(ə)rətli/ /dɪˈnaɪ/ /ˈdɪpləmæt/ /dɪˈskrɪmɪneɪt/ /dɪsˈɒnɪst/ /ɪˈlekt/ /ˈelɪmənt/ /elsˈweə(r)/ /ɪnˈkaʊntə(r)/ /ɪnˈθjuːziˌæzəm/ /ɪˈkwɒləti/ /ɪkˈsperɪmənt/ /ˌfedˈʌp/ /ˈfɪŋɡə(r)ˌneɪl/ /ˈfɜːmli/ /fə(r)ˈɡet/ /ˈɡæðə(r)/ /ˌdʒen(ə)rəlaɪ ˈzeɪʃə)n/ /ˈɡləʊb(ə)l/

highly-respected (adj) hint (v) humorous (adj) identity (n) ignore (v) immigrant (n) incident (n) insist on (v) intense (adj) interpret (v) invisible (n) like-minded (adj) long-lasting (adj) make fun (phrase) massive (adj) misbehave (v) misunderstand (v) modify (v) norm (n) notion (n) obsession (n) offended (adj) open-minded (adj) phenomenon (n) policy (n) praise (v) presence (n) pretend (v) proportion (n) protest (n) racism (n) react (v) refresh (v) regional (adj) response (n) self-conscious (adj) shopkeeper (n) sort (it) out (phr v) statistic (n) stereotype (n) stock (n) trace (v) two-faced (adj) untrue (adj) upset (v) upsetting (adj) urge (v) well-mannered (adj)

/ˌhaɪlirɪsˈpektɪd/ /hɪnt/ /ˈhjuːmərəs/ /aɪˈdentɪti/ /ɪɡˈnɔː(r)/ /ˈɪmɪɡrənt/ /ˈɪnsɪd(ə)nt/ /ɪnˈsɪstˌɒn/ /ɪnˈtens/ /ɪnˈtɜː(r)prɪt/ /ɪnˈvɪzəb(ə)l/ /ˌlaɪkˈmaɪndɪd/ /ˌlɒŋ ˈlɑːstɪŋ/ /ˌmeɪk ˈfʌn/ /ˈmæsɪv/ /ˌmɪsbɪˈheɪv/ /ˌmɪsʌndə(r)ˈstænd/ /ˈmɒdɪfaɪ/ /nɔː(r)m/ /ˈnəʊʃ(ə)n/ /əbˈseʃ(ə)n/ /əˈfɛndɪd/ /ˌəʊpənˈmaɪndɪd/ /fəˈnɒmɪnən/ /ˈpɒləsi/ /preɪz/ /ˈprez(ə)ns/ /prɪˈtend/ /prəˈpɔː(r)ʃ(ə)n/ /ˈprəʊtest/ /ˈreɪˌsɪz(ə)m/ /riˈækt/ /rɪˈfreʃ/ /ˈriːdʒ(ə)nəl/ /rɪˈspɒns/ /ˌselfˈkɒnʃəs/ /ˈʃɒpˌkiːpə(r)/ /ˌsɔːt(ɪt) ˈaʊt/ /stəˈtɪstɪk/ /ˈsteriəˌtaɪp/ /stɒk/ /treɪs/ /ˌtuː ˈfeɪst/ /ʌnˈtruː/ /ʌpˈset/ /ʌpˈsetɪŋ/ /ɜː(r)dʒ/ /ˌwelˈmænə(r)d/

Unit 9 absence (n) affect (v) aid (n) ally (n) appeal (v) assistance (n) block (v) care for (phr v) coastal (adj)

/ˈæbs(ə)ns/ /əˈfekt/ /eɪd/ /ˈælaɪ/ /əˈpiːl/ /əˈsɪst(ə)ns/ /blɒk/ /ˈkeə(r)ˌfɔː(r)/ /ˈkəʊst(ə)l/

Word lists  157

Word Lists convention (n) cope (v) corrupt (adj) crisis (n) debris (n) delegate (n) devastation (n) disaster (n) donation (n) earthquake (n) edit (n) evacuate (v) flee (v) frustrate (v) give (sth) a go (phr v) global warming (n) globe (n) graduate (n) greed (n) headquarters (n) homeless (adj) housing (n) humanity (n) imprison (v) inclusive (adj) infrastructure (n) initiative (n) interactive (adj) joy (n) launch (v) limited (adj) litter (n) neutral (adj) on behalf of (phr v) on the ground (phrase) overlook (v) panel (n) portrait (n) precious (adj) priceless (adj) programmer (n) psychological (adj) realization (n) reconstruction (n) recovery (n) relief (n) reminder (n) remote (adj) representative (n) restore (v) right (n) rise (v) satellite (n) scale (n) senior (adj) shelter (n) shortage (n) siren (n) skip (v) staggering (adj) strike a chord (phr v) supply (n) survivor (n) sustainable (adj)

158  Word lists

/kənˈvenʃ(ə)n/ /kəʊp/ /kəˈrʌpt/ /ˈkraɪsɪs/ /ˈdebriː/ /ˈdeləɡət/ /ˌdevəˈsteɪʃ(ə)n/ /dɪˈzɑːstə(r)/ /dəʊˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˈɜː(r)θˌkweɪk/ /ˈedɪt/ /ɪˈvækjueɪt/ /fliː/ /frʌˈstreɪt/ /ˌgɪvəˈgəʊ/ /ˌgləʊb(ə)l ˈwɔː(r) mɪŋ/ /ɡləʊb/ /ˈɡrædʒuət/ /ɡriːd/ /hedˈkwɔː(r)tə(r)z/ /ˈhəʊmləs/ /ˈhaʊzɪŋ/ /hjuːˈmænəti/ /ɪmˈprɪz(ə)n/ /ɪnˈkluːsɪv/ /ˈɪnfrəˌstrʌktʃə(r)/ /ɪˈnɪʃətɪv/ /ˌɪntərˈæktɪv/ /dʒɔɪ/ /lɔːntʃ/ /ˈlɪmɪtɪd/ /ˈlɪtə(r)/ /ˈnjuːtrəl/ /ˌɒnbɪˈhɑːfɒv/ /ˌɒnðəˈgraʊnd/ /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈlʊk/ /ˈpæn(ə)l/ /ˈpɔː(r)trɪt/ /ˈpreʃəs/ /ˈpraɪsləs/ /ˈprəʊˌɡræmə(r)/ /ˌsaɪkəˈlɒdʒɪk(ə)l/ /ˌrɪəlaɪˈzeɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˌriːkənˈstrʌkʃ(ə)n/ /rɪˈkʌv(ə)ri/ /rɪˈliːf/ /rɪˈmaɪndə(r)/ /rɪˈməʊt/ /ˌreprɪˈzentətɪv/ /rɪˈstɔː(r)/ /raɪt/ /raɪz/ /ˈsætəlaɪt/ /skeɪl/ /ˈsiːniə(r)/ /ˈʃeltə(r)/ /ˈʃɔː(r)tɪdʒ/ /ˈsaɪrən/ /skɪp/ /ˈstæɡərɪŋ/ /ˌstraɪkəˈkɔː(r)d/ /səˈplaɪ/ /sə(r)ˈvaɪvə(r)/ /səˈsteɪnəb(ə)l/

the best (n) the brave (n) the loud (n) the old (n) the outgoing (n) the poor (n) the rich (n) the stupid (n) trap (v) unfamiliar (adj) unfold (v) wander (v) workshop (n)

/ðəbest/ /ðə breɪv/ /ðə laʊd/ /ðə əʊld/ /ði: ˌaʊtˈgəʊɪŋ/ /ðəpɔː(r)/ /ðə rɪʧ/ /ðə ˈstjuːpɪd/ /træp/ /ˌʌnfəˈmɪljə(r)/ /ʌnˈfəʊld/ /ˈwɒndə(r)/ /ˈwɜː(r)kˌʃɒp/

Unit 10 actively (adv) address (v) aim (v) allergic (adj) amazement (n) antibiotics (n) apocalypse (n) award (v) bench (n) bestseller (n) blindness (n) blink (v) cast (n) category (n) cell (n) chance (n) cheer (v) chest (n) clarify (v) clear up (phr v) close down (phr v) combine (v) comfort zone (n) concentration (n) consciousness (n) considerable (adj) contribute (v) convert (v) darkness (n) deadly (adj) dependent (adj) design (v) determined (adj) device (n) devote (v) diagnose (v) dictate (v) disgust (v) disturbing (adj) dose (n) drug (n) editor (n) efficiently (adv) expose (v) express (v) extract (v) fascinated (adj)

/ˈæktɪvli/ /əˈdres/ /eɪm/ /əˈlɜː(r)dʒɪk/ /əˈmeɪzmənt/ /ˌæntibaɪˈɒtɪks/ /əˈpɒkəˌlɪps/ /əˈwɔː(r)d/ /bentʃ/ /ˌbestˈselə(r)/ /ˈblaɪndnəs/ /blɪŋk/ /kɑːst/ /ˈkætəɡ(ə)ri/ /sel/ /tʃɑːns/ /tʃɪə(r)/ /tʃest/ /ˈklærəfaɪ/ /ˌklɪə(r)ˈʌp/ /ˌkləʊzˈdaʊn/ /kəmˈbaɪn/ /ˈkʌmfə(r)t ˌzəʊn / /ˌkɒns(ə)nˈtreɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˈkɒnʃəsnəs/ /kənˈsɪd(ə)rəb(ə)l/ /kənˈtrɪbjuːt/ /kənˈvɜː(r)t/ /ˈdɑː(r)knəs/ /ˈdedli/ /dɪˈpendənt/ /dɪˈzaɪn/ /dɪˈtɜː(r)mɪnd/ /dɪˈvaɪs/ /dɪˈvəʊt/ /ˈdaɪəɡnəʊz/ /dɪkˈteɪt/ /dɪsˈɡʌst/ /dɪˈstɜː(r)bɪŋ/ /dəʊs/ /drʌɡ/ /ˈedɪtə(r)/ /ɪˈfɪʃ(ə)ntli/ /ɪkˈspəʊz/ /ɪkˈspres/ /ɪkˈstrækt/ /ˈfæsɪneɪtɪd/

flash (n) force (v) get out (phr v) gripping (adj) health care (n) helmet (n) honour (n) house (v) inability (n) inevitable (adj) infection (n) insufficient (adj) intensive (adj) keep down (phr v) lead (v) lung (n) make the most of (phrase) misery (n) nickname (n) note down (phr v) optimistic (adj) partial (adj) peer (v) portion (n) precisely (adv) prescribe (v) prescription (n) procedure (n) punishment (n) rapid (adj) resistant (adj) respond (v) risk (n) run away (phr v) slam (v) slide (v) slow (v) stroke (n) sweat (n) symptom (n) thankfully (adv) therapist (n) therapy (n) think through (phr v) threatening (adj) treat (v) turn to (phr v) vision (n) visual (adj) waist (n) ward (n) watch out (phr v) weaken (v) whisper (v) wipe (v)

/flæʃ/ /fɔː(r)s/ /ˌgetˈaʊt/ /ˈɡrɪpɪŋ/ /ˈhelθˌkeə(r)/ /ˈhelmɪt/ /ˈɒnə(r)/ /haʊz/ /ˌɪnəˈbɪləti/ /ɪnˈevɪtəb(ə)l/ /ɪnˈfekʃ(ə)n/ /ˌɪnsəˈfɪʃ(ə)nt/ /ɪnˈtensɪv/ /ˌkiːpˈdaʊn/ /liːd/ /lʌŋ/ /ˌmeɪkðəˈməʊstɒv/ /ˈmɪzəri/ /ˈnɪkˌneɪm/ /ˌnəʊtˈdaʊn/ /ˌɒptɪˈmɪstɪk/ /ˈpɑː(r)ʃ(ə)l/ /pɪə(r)/ /ˈpɔː(r)ʃ(ə)n/ /prɪˈsaɪsli/ /prɪˈskraɪb/ /prɪˈskrɪpʃ(ə)n/ /prəˈsiːdʒə(r)/ /ˈpʌnɪʃmənt/ /ˈræpɪd/ /rɪˈzɪst(ə)nt/ /rɪˈspɒnd/ /rɪsk/ /ˌrʌnəˈweɪ/ /slæm/ /slaɪd/ /sləʊ/ /strəʊk/ /swet/ /ˈsɪmptəm/ /ˈθæŋkf(ə)li/ /ˈθerəpɪst/ /ˈθerəpi/ /ˌθɪŋk ˈθruː/ /ˈθret(ə)nɪŋ/ /triːt/ /ˈtɜː(r)ntuː/ /ˈvɪʒ(ə)n/ /ˈvɪʒʊəl/ /weɪst/ /wɔː(r)d/ /ˌwɒʧˈaʊt/ /ˈwiːkən/ /ˈwɪspə(r)/ /waɪp/

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Acknowledgments

Paulo Rogerio Rodrigues Escola Móbile, São Paulo, Brazil

Natan Galed Gomez Cartagena Global English Teaching, Rionegro, Colombia

Claudia Colla de Amorim Escola Móbile, São Paulo, Brazil

James Ubriaco Colégio Santo Agostinho, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Rory Ruddock Atlantic International Language Center, Hanoi, Vietnam

Ryan Manley The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, China

Carmen Virginia Pérez Cervantes La Salle, Mexico City, Mexico

Silvia Teles Colégio Cândido Portinari, Salvador, Brazil

Rossana Patricia Zuleta CIPRODE, Guatemala City, Guatemala

María Camila Azuero Gutiérrez Fundación Centro Electrónico de Idiomas, Bogotá, Colombia

Gloria Stella Quintero Riveros Universidad Católica de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia

Martha Ramirez Colegio San Mateo Apostol, Bogotá, Colombia

Mónica Rodriguez Salvo MAR English Services, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Beata Polit XXIII LO Warszawa, Poland

Itana de Almeida Lins Grupo Educacional Anchieta, Porto Alegre, Brazil

Beata Tomaszewska V LO Toruń, Poland

Alma Loya Alma Loya Colegio de Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico

Michał Szkudlarek I LO Brzeg, Poland

María Trapero Dávila Colegio Teresiano, Ciudad Obregon, Mexico

Anna Buchowska I LO Białystok, Poland

Silvia Kosaruk Modern School, Lanús, Argentina

Natalia Maćkowiak one2one, Kosakowo, Poland

Florencia Adami Dámaso Centeno, Caba, Argentina

Agnieszka Dończyk one2one, Kosakowo, Poland

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