Reference List: Electronic Sources // Purdue Writing Lab (2023)

Note:This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 stylecan be found here.

Important Note: Some electronic citations necessitate the use of brackets. APA style dictates that brackets should directly surround their content without spaces (e.g., [bracketed content] should look like this). When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Additionally, APA 7thedition no longer requires the use of “Retrieved from” before URLs or DOIs; special exceptions, however, are made for resources that are unarchived. Including the retrieval date for these sources indicates to readers that the version of the work they retrieve may be different than what was originally used.

Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited electronic sources. For a complete list of how to cite electronic sources, please refer to the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Webpage or Piece of Online Content

If the page names an individual author, cite their name first:

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium. https://humanparts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist-3af27e312d01

If the resource was written by a group or organization, use the name of the group/organization as the author. Additionally, if the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the citation.

Group name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (2019, November 21). Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims. https://www.aspca.org/news/justice-served-case-closed-over-40-dogfighting-victims

If the page's author is not listed, start with the title instead. Additionally, include a retrieval date when the page's content is likely to change over time (like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki that is publicly edited).

Title of page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

Tuscan white bean pasta.(2018, February 25). Budgetbytes. Retrieved March 18, 2020, fromhttps://www.budgetbytes.com/tuscan-white-bean-pasta/

If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.).

Author or Group name. (n.d.).Title of page. Site name (if applicable). URL

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Mental health conditions. https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions

Wikipedia Article

APA 7 treats Wikipedia articles as special instances of entries in reference works. Thus, there are a few differences between reference entries for pages on Wikipedia and those for generic webpages.

Title of article. (Year, Month Date). InWikipedia.URL of archived version of page

Quantum mechanics. (2019, November 19). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quantum_mechanics&oldid=948476810

(Video) Purdue OWL: APA Formatting: Reference List Basics

Wikipedia articles often update frequently. For this reason, the date refers to the date that the cited version of the page was published. Note also that the manual recommends linking to the archived version of the page, rather than the current version of the page on the site, since the latter can change over time. Access the archived version by clicking "View History," then clicking the date/timestamp of the version you'd like to cite.

Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs

Please note: Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document.

Note also that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed." This button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI. Find DOIs from print publications or ones that go to dead links with doi.org's "Resolve a DOI" function, available on the site's home page.

APA 7also advises writers to include a DOI (if available), even when using the print source.

Article from an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.(Issue), page numbers. DOI

Drollinger, T., Comer, L. B., & Warrington, P. T. (2006). Development and validation of the active empathetic listening scale. Psychology & Marketing, 23(2), 161-180. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20105

Article from an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

If an online scholarly journal article has no DOI and is published on a website, include the URL. If an online scholarly article has no DOI and is published on a database, do not include a URL or any database information. The only exception is for databases that publish articles that are in limited circulation (like ERIC) or that are only available on that particular database (like UpToDate). Note that retrieval dates are required for unarchived sources that are likely, or intended, to change over time.

Perreault, L. (2019). Obesity in adults: Role of physical activity and exercise. UpToDate. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/obesity-in-adults-role-of-physical-activity-and-exercise

Abstract

APA 7th edition does not provide guidance on how to cite abstracts. However, if you only use information from the abstract but the full text of the article is also available, we advise you to add "[Abstract]" after the article or source name. If the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source.

Online News Article

Note:The format for this type of source depends on whether your source comes from a site with an associated newspaper.

If the sourcedoescome from a site with an associated newspaper, leave the title of the article unformatted, but italicize the title of the newspaper.

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL

Richards, C. (2019, December 9). Best music of 2019: Lana Del Rey sings lullabies about the end of America. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/best-music-of-2019-lana-del-rey-sings-lullabies-about-the-end-of-america/2019/12/06/6e82c5ec-15d8-11ea-a659-7d69641c6ff7_story.html

On the other hand, if the sourcedoesn'tcome from a site with an associated newspaper, italicize the title of the article, but leave the name of the site unformatted.

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Name of publishing website. URL

Jones, J. (2020, May 10). Why flats dominate Spain's housing market. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20200506-why-do-flats-dominate-spains-housing-market

Electronic or Kindle Books

It is not necessary to note that you have used an eBook or audiobook when the content is the same as a physical book. However, you should distinguish between the eBook or audiobook and the print version if the content is different or abridged, or if you would like to cite the narrator of an audiobook.

Lastname, F. M. (Year).Title of book. Publisher. URL

Lastname, F. M. (Year).Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher. URL (if applicable)

(Video) Purdue OWL Citing Electronic Sources

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name.

Duis, J. M. (2008). Acid/base chemistry and related organic chemistry conceptions of undergraduate organic chemistry students(Publication No. 3348786) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with a Group Author

Note:An online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may be continuously updated and therefore not include a publication date (like in the example below). If that’s the case, use “n.d.” for the date and include the retrieval date in the citation.

Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work. URL

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Braggadocio. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved January 13, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/braggadocio

Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with an Individual Author

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of entry. In F. M. Lastname (ed.), Title of reference work (edition). Publisher. URL or DOI

Note: If the dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia does not include an edition, simply skip that step.

Data Sets

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group (Year). Title of dataset (Version No.) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL

Grantmakers in the Arts. (2019). Arts funding trends, United States, 1994-present (ICPSR 37337) [Data set]. National Archive of Data on Arts & Culture. https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NADAC/studies/37337

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps, Infographics, and Other Graphic Representations of Data)

Give the name of the organization or individual followed by the date and the title. If there is no title, in brackets, you should provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Include the URL and the retrieval date if there is no publication date.

HatchMed. (2017). 8 ways to improve patient satisfaction [Infographic]. HatchMed.com. https://www.hatchmed.com/blog/2017/1/30/8-ways-to-improve-patient-satisfaction

Google. (n.d.). [Google Map of Purdue University]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://www.google.com/maps/@40.4237095,-86.9233886,17z

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If the interview transcript is published in an online periodical, like a magazine, cite the interview the same way you would cite the medium where it is published, as shown below:

(Video) APA 7th Edition: References | Part II

Schulman, M. (2019, December 8). Peter Dinklage is still punk rock. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/culture/the-new-yorker-interview/peter-dinklage-is-still-punk-rock

If it is an audio file or transcript published in a database, credit the interviewee as the author and use the following model:

Paynter, W. (1970, September 17). Interview with Will Paynter [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum. https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/interview-will-paynter

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Publisher. URL

Smith, C. (2017, October 13). AI and machine learning demystified [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/carologic/ai-and-machine-learning-demystified-by-carol-smith-at-midwest-ux-2017

Computer Software/Downloaded Software

Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of software (Version No.). Publisher. URL

Maplesoft. (2019). Maple companion (Version 2.1.0). Cybernet Systems Co. https://www.maplesoft.com/products/MapleCompanion/

Email

E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you should parenthetically cite them in your main text:

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

Online Forum or Discussion Posting

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of post [Online forum post]. Publisher. URL

Stine, R. L. [RL__Stine]. (2013, October 23). I’m R.L. Stine and it’s my job to terrify kids. Ask me anything! [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/1p32dl/

Tweet

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words[Tweet]. Site Name. URL

Note: If the tweet includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.

National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/NatGeo/status/1216346352063537154

Twitter Profile

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

MLA Style [@mlastyle]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://twitter.com/mlastyle

(Video) Citing Electronic Sources Using Purdue's OWL

Facebook Post

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

Note: If the Facebook post includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2020, January 10). Like frosting on a cake, snow coats and clings to the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/USInterior/photos/a.155163054537384/2586475451406120/?type=3&theater

Facebook Page

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

Little River Canyon National Preserve (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved January 12, 2020 from https://www.facebook.com/lirinps/

Instagram Photo or Video

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

BBC [@bbc]. (2020, January 12). Skywatchers have been treated to the first full moon of 2020-known as a “wolf moon”-at the same time as a [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B7OkWqbBwcf/

Blog Post

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of post. Publisher. URL

Axelrod, A. (2019, August 11). A century later: The Treaty of Versailles and its rejection of racial equality. Code Switch, NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2019/08/11/742293305/a-century-later-the-treaty-of-versailles-and-its-rejection-of-racial-equality

YouTube or other Streaming Video

Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL

Lushi, K. [Korab Lushi]. (2016, July 3). Albatross culture 1 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_AMrJRQDPjk&t=148s

Note: The person or group who uploaded the video is considered the author. If the author’s name is the same as the username, you can omit the [Username].

Ted Talk

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. TED. URL

Al-Mutawa, N. (2010, July). Superheroes inspired by Islam [Video]. TED. https://www.ted.com/talks/naif_al_mutawa_superheroes_inspired_by_islam#t-4909

Or (if on YouTube)

Username. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. YouTube. URL

Tedx Talks. (2011, Nov. 15). TEDxHampshireCollege - Jay Smooth - How I learned to stop worrying and love discussing race [Video]. YouTube.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbdxeFcQtaU

Podcast Episode

Host, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Date). Title of episode (No. if provided) [Audio podcast episode]. In Name of podcast. Publisher. URL

(Video) APA 7th Edition: References | Part I

FAQs

How do you reference electronic sources? ›

Include information in the following order:
  1. author (the person or organisation responsible for the site)
  2. year (date created or last updated)
  3. page title (in italics)
  4. name of sponsor of site (if available)
  5. accessed day month year (the day you viewed the site)
  6. URL or Internet address (pointed brackets).
7 Jul 2022

What is an example of an electronic source in text citation? ›

Author's Last Name, Author's Initial(s). (year, month day of publication/creation). Title of page or section in Web site. Title of Complete Web Site or Page, length of publication.

What is electronic references in research? ›

The APA Style Guide to Electronic References says to "format references to technical and research reports and other gray literature as you would a book retrieved online." Thus, a reference to an annual report follows the usual who-when-what-where format. For example, American Psychological Association. ( 2013).

How DOI cite an electronic essay? ›

Citing an Essay

Last, First M. “Essay Title.” Collection Title, edited by First M. Last, Publisher, year published, page numbers. Website Title, URL (if applicable).

What are the 4 electronic sources? ›

More Tips for Referencing Electronic Sources

e-mail. e-journal. database. Internet.

What is electronic reference material? ›

Electronic Reference materials are sources of information in the form of online encyclopedias, dictionaries, timelines, handbooks, and guides. These resources provide reliable and accurate quick facts, definitions, and background information on any topic.

How do you cite electronic sources in MLA? ›

Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known.

Which of the following is the correct format to cite DOI for electronic sources? ›

A DOI should be preceded by a "doi:" label (note the lowercase). The APA allows for the use of either the modern alphanumeric string format ("doi:0000000/000000000000") or the older doi.org format ("https://doi.org/10.0000/0000"). Use whichever is provided by the source.

What does a reference list contain? ›

A reference list contains details of all sources cited in text. A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title. A reference list is generally placed at the end of a work.

Is a PDF an electronic source? ›

A PDF, after all, is not really a source itself, but rather a file type and a way to display a source. For example, if the source you wish to cite is a PDF of a newspaper article, cite the source as you would a newspaper.

How do you format an electronic source citation without page numbers? ›

"When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. Use the heading or section name, an abbreviated heading or section name, a paragraph number (para. 1), or a combination of these."

How do you cite online sources both in text and in references? ›

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.).

How do you cite references in an essay? ›

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

How do you cite an online article in APA in-text? ›

When citing a webpage or online article, the APA in-text citation consists of the author's last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).

What are the 5 reference materials? ›

Reference Materials
  • Dictionaries (both language and topical)
  • Encyclopedias.
  • Bibliographies (lists of resources on a specific topic)
  • Research handbooks and guides.
  • Catalogs.
  • Atlases and maps.
  • Directories.

What are the five major types of reference sources? ›

The most familiar types of reference are:
  • Dictionaries.
  • Encyclopedias.
  • Almanacs.
  • Directories.
  • Hanbooks and yearbooks.
  • Atlases and bibliographies.
3 May 2022

What are the types of reference sources? ›

Types of Reference Sources
  • Types of Reference Sources: The print Reference Collection is shelved on the first floor facing the Library Help Desk as you enter the library. ...
  • Encyclopedias. ...
  • Guides and Bibliographies. ...
  • Dictionaries. ...
  • Biographical Sources. ...
  • Handbooks. ...
  • Statistical Sources. ...
  • Chronologies and Timelines.
11 Jan 2022

How do you in-text cite a video MLA? ›

Citing a video in MLA Style

The video title appears in quotation marks, the site name in italics. In the in-text citation, list the author's last name and the timestamp of the relevant part of the video. Author's last name, First name. “Video Title.” Website, uploaded by Uploader, Day Month Year, URL.

How do I APA cite a YouTube video? ›

To cite a YouTube video in APA Style, you include the person or organization that uploaded it, their channel name (if different from their real name), the upload date, the video title (italicized), “Video” in square brackets, the name of the site, and a link to the video.

How do I cite a video MLA? ›

The general format for citing online videos in MLA style is as follows: "Title of video." YouTube, uploaded by Screen Name, day month year, www.youtube.com/xxxxx. If the author of the video is not the same as the person who uploaded the video, your citation would be formatted as follows: Author last name, First Name.

Should you include DOI in reference? ›

In an APA journal citation, if a DOI (digital object identifier) is available for an article, always include it. If an article has no DOI, and you accessed it through a database or in print, just omit the DOI.

When referencing a journal article with a Digital Object Identifier How and where is the DOI noted? ›

In most scholarly journal articles, the DOI will be printed with the article itself, usually on the first page somewhere: below the title or in the header or footer. If the DOI isn't included in the article, look it up on the website CrossRef.org (use the "Search Metadata" option) to check for an assigned DOI.

What is the proper APA reference list from a general website source with digital object identification? ›

Provide the author(s), year of posting, title of the article, name of the journal, the notation Advance online publication, and the DOI or the URL of the journal's home page.

What's the difference between a bibliography and a reference list? ›

A reference list is the detailed list of references that are cited in your work. A bibliography is a detailed list of references cited in your work, plus the background readings or other material that you may have read, but not actually cited.

What are examples of references? ›

References: Common Reference List Examples
  • Article (With DOI)
  • Article (Without DOI)
  • Book.
  • Chapter in an Edited Book.
  • Dissertations or Theses.
  • Legal Material.
  • Magazine Article.
  • Newspaper Article.

What order should a reference list be in? ›

A reference list should be ordered alphabetically by author's surname unless you are using a numeric referencing system. In this case, sources are assigned a number when they first appear in the text, and are listed in numerical order.

How do you APA reference a PDF? ›

In general, to cite a PDF in APA format, use the same formula as you would to cite a website in APA format: Last name of author, First name initials. (Year of publication). Title of document.

How DOI cite an ebook in APA? ›

To cite an ebook in your work, use the usual in-text citation format of author's surname and year of publication. In an APA reference list entry, include the author's last name and first initial, the year of publication, the italicized title of the book, and the retrieval information or DOI number.

How DOI cite a PDF in MLA? ›

Citing a book in PDF form

Last name, First name. Book Title. Publisher, Year. Website/Database Name.

How do you cite an online article in APA with no page number? ›

If there are no page numbers, you can include any of the following in the in-text citation: If paragraph numbers are visible use them in place of page numbers; alternatively, you could count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document. Use the abbreviation 'para. '

How many references should a 3000 word essay have? ›

Take the number of pages. In your case, about 8.5 double spaced with 12-point font and 1″ margins. Multiply that by three to get 25.5, so round up to 26. That's about how many citations you should have at least - you can have more.

How many references should a 1500 word essay have? ›

Generally, you need to use one to two references for the point you are trying to make. Roughly, for a 1500-word essay, this makes a minimum of 10 references. This, however, also depends on the topic or the subject you are covering in the essay.

How many references should I have for a 2000 word essay? ›

For example: In a 2000 word essay, you will have 1500 words to use. Each main point you make should typically use 1-3 paragraphs, which should average around 200-400 words in total. This will give you room for around 5 key points, each supported by 2 or 3 references.

How do you do an in text citation for a website? ›

Luckily, writing the in-text citation for a website or webpage is easy: Simply include the author and year of publication. The URL goes in the corresponding reference list entry (and yes, you can leave the links live).

How do you cite electronic sources in MLA? ›

Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known.

What is an electronic source in Harvard referencing? ›

Citing electronic or online sources

An electronic source is any information source in digital format. The library subscribes to many electronic information resources in order to provide access for students.

How do you format an electronic source citation without page numbers? ›

"When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. Use the heading or section name, an abbreviated heading or section name, a paragraph number (para. 1), or a combination of these."

What are the examples of electronic resources? ›

Electronic resources (or e-resources) are materials in digital format accessible electronically. Examples of e-resources are electronic journals (e-journal), electronic books (e-book) online databases in varied digital formats, Adobe Acrobat documents (. pdf), WebPages (.

How do you in-text cite a video MLA? ›

Citing a video in MLA Style

The video title appears in quotation marks, the site name in italics. In the in-text citation, list the author's last name and the timestamp of the relevant part of the video. Author's last name, First name. “Video Title.” Website, uploaded by Uploader, Day Month Year, URL.

How do I APA cite a YouTube video? ›

To cite a YouTube video in APA Style, you include the person or organization that uploaded it, their channel name (if different from their real name), the upload date, the video title (italicized), “Video” in square brackets, the name of the site, and a link to the video.

How do I cite a video MLA? ›

The general format for citing online videos in MLA style is as follows: "Title of video." YouTube, uploaded by Screen Name, day month year, www.youtube.com/xxxxx. If the author of the video is not the same as the person who uploaded the video, your citation would be formatted as follows: Author last name, First Name.

How do you Harvard reference an electronic journal? ›

Basic format to reference journal articles
  1. Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  2. Year of publication of the article.
  3. Article title (in single inverted commas).
  4. Journal title (in italics).
  5. Volume of journal.
  6. Issue number of journal.
  7. Page range of article.
12 Sept 2022

How do you reference examples? ›

Reference structure and example: Author Surname, Initials. (Publication Year) 'Article title', Newspaper/Magazine Name, Day Month Published, Page(s). Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: date).

How do you reference something that is already referenced Harvard? ›

Citing something that someone else has cited:
  1. Format - in-text citation. Author of the quote (Year, cited in Author of resource you have seen, year, page no.)
  2. In-text citation: Include the author and year of both texts, and the page of the citation you are quoting from. ...
  3. Reference List.
10 Oct 2022

How do you cite online sources both in text and in references? ›

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.).

Which of the following is the correct format to cite DOI for electronic sources? ›

A DOI should be preceded by a "doi:" label (note the lowercase). The APA allows for the use of either the modern alphanumeric string format ("doi:0000000/000000000000") or the older doi.org format ("https://doi.org/10.0000/0000"). Use whichever is provided by the source.

How do you in text cite an e book? ›

eBook from a Library Database

Last Name, First Name of First Author, et al. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication. Name of eBook Database, doi:DOI number/URL/Permalink.

What are the examples of reference materials? ›

Reference Materials
  • Dictionaries (both language and topical)
  • Encyclopedias.
  • Bibliographies (lists of resources on a specific topic)
  • Research handbooks and guides.
  • Catalogs.
  • Atlases and maps.
  • Directories.

How is an electronic source evaluated? ›

In evaluating electronic resources, a satisfactory report of the usage will encourage the renewal of the subscription or eventual cancellation of the resource. A satisfactory report can be evaluated through the extent of usage of the resources by the users.

Is electronics or digitized sources considered as primary sources? ›

It is not a primary source if the "electronic or digitalized" sources are articles, other studies, etc. However, if they are online surveys, they are primary sources. In some circumstances, getting the original source will be challenging, so you could have to rely on copies (photocopies, microfilm, digital copies).

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