Spring wheat growth and development guide (2022)

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Understanding spring wheat growth and development is essential to achieving optimum productivity.

Spring wheat proceeds through a sequence of easily recognizable growth stages that are described by several staging schemes, the most comprehensive being the Zadoks system. Growing conditions and management decisions at any stage can impact the crop’s ultimate performance.

How spring wheat develops

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Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be classified as winter or spring growth habit based on flowering responses to cold temperatures.

Winter vs. spring wheat

Winter wheat development is promoted by seedlings’ exposure to temperatures in the 38 to 46 degrees Fahrenheit (3 to 8 degrees Celsius) range. These types are usually planted in the fall, which exposes the seedlings to cold temperatures during late fall and winter.

Spring types, however, don’t require exposure to cold temperatures for normal development and can be planted in spring.

Both winter and spring types, when properly grown in Minnesota, head in the late spring or early summer and mature by mid- to late-summer.

This webpage’s description of wheat development applies mostly to spring wheat, although all cereals have similar basic development patterns.

Figure 1 shows major developmental stages in spring wheat and approximate time intervals between them in Minnesota. A difference in maturity may exist among varieties or between seasons.

Spring wheat growth and development guide (1)

Growth staging systems

A number of staging systems have evolved for describing wheat development. We describe the Zadoks system, which is becoming the most universally accepted, in detail. In addition, we introduce the Haun and Feekes-Large staging systems.

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The Zadoks system applies to any small grain and its stages are easy to identify in the field. It’s more detailed than other systems and allows for precise staging.

The two-digit code system

The first digit of this two-digit code shown in Table 1 refers to the principal stage of development beginning with germination (stage 0) and ending with kernel ripening (stage 9). The second digit between 0 and 9 subdivides each principal growth stage. A second digit value of 5 usually indicates the midpoint of the principal stage. For example, a 75 refers to medium milk stage of kernel development.

Seedling stage

In seedling growth, principal growth stage 1, the second digit refers to the number of emerged leaves. To be counted, a leaf must be at least 50 percent emerged.

A 13, for example, indicates that three leaves are at least 50 percent emerged on the main shoot. Do not count tiller leaves.

(Video) Growth of a Wheat Plant-Part 1

For the purposes of herbicide application, the seedling stage (stage 1) identifying the leaf numbers is useful.

Tillering stage and beyond

For the tillering principal stage (stage 2), the second digit indicates the number of emerged tillers present on the plant.

Combining stages

Because stages may overlap, it’s possible to combine Zadoks indexes to more completely describe a plant's appearance. For example, a plant with one tiller and three leaves could be described by either or both of the Zadoks stages 13 and 21 (Figure 1).

As the plant matures, the Zadoks stages describing kernel development are usually used alone.

The Haun system is mainly concerned with the leaf production stage of development.

The length of each emerging leaf is expressed as a fraction of the length of the preceding fully emerged leaf. For example, a 3.2 indicates that three leaves are fully emerged, and a fourth leaf has emerged two-tenths of the length of the third.

Although this system can be modified, it’s not as useful when making decisions using development indicators other than leaf numbers.

The Feekes-Large system has been widely used, but is becoming less popular. It numerically identifies stages such as tillering, jointing and ripening, but lacks the more detailed attributes of the Zadoks and Haun systems.

Table 1 shows stages of the Feekes scale next to the corresponding Zadoks stages.

Table 1. Zadoks growth staging system and corresponding Feekes code.

Zadoks code:
Principal stage
Zadoks code:
Secondary stage
Description Corresponding
Feekes code
0 Germination
0 Dry kernel
1 Start of imbibition (water absorption)
5 Radicle emerged
7 Coleoptile emerged
9 Leaf just at coleoptile tip
1 Seeding development 1
0 First leaf through coleoptile
1 First leaf at least 50 percent emerged
2 Second leaf at least 50 percent emerged
3 Third leaf at least 50 percent emerged
4 Fourth leaf at least 50 percent emerged
5 Fifth leaf at least 50 percent emerged
2 Tillering 2
0 Main shoot only
1 Main shoot plus one visible tiller
2 Main shoot plus two tillers
3 Main shoot plus three tillers
4 Main shoot plus four tillers
5 Main shoot plus five tillers 3
3 Stem elongation
1 First node detectable 6
2 Second node detectable 7
3 Third node detectable
7 Flag leaf just visible 8
9 Flag leaf collar just visible 9
4 Boot
1 Flag leaf sheath extending
3 Boot just beginning to swell
5 Boot swollen 10
7 Flag leaf sheath opening
9 First awns visible
5 Head emergence
1 First spikelet of head just visible 10.1
3 One-fourth of head emerged 10.2
5 Half of head emerged 10.3
7 Three-fourths of head emerged 10.4
9 Head emergence complete 10.5
6 Flowering
1 Beginning of flowering 10.5.1
5 Half of florets have flowered 10.5.2
9 Flowering complete
7 Milk development in kernel
1 Kernel watery ripe 10.5.4
3 Early milk
5 Medium milk 11.1
7 Late milk
8 Dough development in kernel
3 Early dough
5 Soft dough 11.2
7 Hard dough, head losing green color
9 Approximate physiological maturity
9 Ripening
1 Kernel hard (difficult to divide with thumbnail) 11.3
2 Thumbnail cannot dent kernel, harvest ripe 11.4

Growth and development

Wheat’s growth cycle has the following divisions: Germination, seedling establishment and leaf production, tillering and head differentiation, stem and head growth, head emergence and flowering and grain filling and maturity.

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Spring wheat growth and development guide (2)

Germination

When a kernel is sown, the germination process begins. The radicle and seminal roots first extend, followed by the coleoptile (Figure 2).

Roots can be initiated from several positions on the seedling, both at the level of the seed and at the crown. The crown is usually separated from the seed by a sub-crown internode. The length of this internode increases as the depth of planting increases.

Leaf production

Spring wheat growth and development guide (3)

(Video) How to identify the growth stages of wheat

Spring wheat growth and development guide (4)

As the coleoptile emerges from the soil, its growth stops and the first true leaf pushes through the tip (Figure 3).

After seedling emergence, leaves produce at a rate of about one every four to five days. Figure 4 shows a young seedling at the 2-leaf stage.

A total of eight or nine leaves are usually produced, with later maturing varieties producing the larger number. Emergence of the last leaf – called the flag leaf – is an important stage for timing the application of certain plant growth regulators.

Tillering is an important development stage that allows plants to compensate for low plant populations or take advantage of good growing conditions.

Forming tillers

Tiller appearance closely coordinates with how leaves appear on the main shoot. Tillers can form at the attachment points of the coleoptile and the lower leaves on the main shoot.

The number of tillers formed depends on the variety and growing conditions. Under usual field conditions, a plant may produce three tillers in addition to the main shoot, although not all will necessarily produce grain.

Plants also can produce tillers from tillers – called secondary tillers – if the plant isn’t crowded or is heavily fertilized. Tillers that appear when the fourth, fifth and sixth leaves emerge on the main shoot are most likely to complete development and form grain.

Tillers that form later are likely to abort without producing grain. Tillers that produce more than three leaves and initiate their own root system are most likely to survive. The proportion of initiated tillers that abort differs with the variety and can increase if the crop encounters stressful conditions.

Spring wheat growth and development guide (5)

Initiating heads

As tillering occurs, another less obvious but extremely important event happens: The initiation of heads on the main shoot and tillers. Although the head at this time is microscopic, it’s already forming the parts that will become the floral structures and kernels.

When head formation is complete, the stem begins elongating. This corresponds to the “jointing” stage (Figure 5). A plant usually has about five leaves at this time.

Spring wheat growth and development guide (6)

Stem elongation

The plant’s lower stem internodes remain short throughout development. The fourth internode is usually the first to elongate in a plant with nine leaves.

This is followed by the internodes above it, in sequence (Figure 6), with each stem internode up the plant becoming progressively longer. The last stem segment to elongate, the peduncle, accounts for a considerable proportion of the total stem length.

Growth regulators designed to shorten plant stature and increase resistance to lodging are timed to influence stem elongation. Some regulators act as growth retardants and reduce elongation of the last two or three stem internodes, resulting in a shorter, stiffer stemmed plant that lodges less readily.

Spring wheat growth and development guide (7)

Head growth

Stem elongation coincides with the period of rapid head growth in which individual florets become prepared to pollinate and be fertilized.

Throughout the preheading period, differences in the duration of the various developmental phases among shoots on the same plant help synchronize development. This means a difference of several weeks between emergence of the main shoot and a tiller is reduced to a difference of only a few days by the time the heads emerge from the flag leaf sheaths.

The “boot” stage is just prior to head emergence, when the flag leaf sheath encloses the growing head (Figure 7).

Spring wheat growth and development guide (8)

As the stem continues to elongate, the head is pushed out of the flag leaf sheath, a stage referred to as “heading.”

Within a few days after heading, flowering (pollination) begins in the head, starting first with the florets in the central spikelets. Within the next few days, flowering progresses both up and down the spike.

Flowering is usually noted by anthers extruding from each floret (Figure 8), although this can change depending on the variety and weather conditions. If the anthers within a floret are yellow or gray rather than green, you can be reasonably certain that the floret’s pollination has occurred.

The pollination period within a single head is about four days. The young kernels within a head vary considerably in size at pollination and maintain this size variation throughout grain filling to maturity.

(Video) Wheat and small grain growth, development and management

Figure 9 shows the growth pattern for an individual wheat kernel. A specific crop season’s conditions will somewhat modify this pattern as well as the final weight attained.

Growth progresses in three distinct phases spanning about four weeks under usual conditions. Figure 10 illustrates the appearance of wheat kernels during grain filling.

Developmental phases

The first phase – known as the “watery ripe” and “milk” stages – establishes the number of cells in the endosperm (the major starch and protein storage portion of the kernel). Not much weight accumulates during this phase.

Then, one to two weeks after pollination, the kernel begins rapidly accumulating starch and protein and its dry weight increases in a nearly linear manner. This is when most of the kernel’s final weight accumulates. The kernel consistency is “soft dough” during this time.

Finally, kernel growth declines about three weeks into grain filling and its weight approaches a maximum attained at physiological maturity. As the kernel approaches maturity, its consistency becomes “hard dough” and it loses its green color.

Spring wheat growth and development guide (9)

Spring wheat growth and development guide (10)

Factors affecting yield

Adverse environmental conditions during any of a kernel’s growth periods can reduce the rate of dry matter accumulation and decrease yield. As a rule, the longer the adverse condition lasts and the earlier it occurs during grain filling, the greater its effect on yield.

Leaf removal

For example, Table 2 provides information from an experiment with two spring wheat varieties in Minnesota during two years with very different weather conditions. It shows that removing the leaf blades early in grain development (at flowering) consistently reduced grain weight more than leaf removal two weeks later.

Furthermore, the average reduction due to leaf removal in 1979 was greater than in 1980. This is because 1980 was a particularly hot, dry year in which leaf removal, particularly later, was of less consequence. Although this experiment only measured effects of leaf removal on individual kernel weights, the results also approximate the effects on grain yield.

Table 2 shows reductions in final weight per kernel for spring wheat in two years in response to leaf removal at different times during the grain filling period. Results are averages for the varieties Era and Olaf.

Table 2: How leaf removal during grain filling affects kernel weight

Year Leaf removal at flowering Leaf removal two weeks after flowering Average
1979 25% reduction in kernel weight 10% reduction in kernel weight 16% reduction in kernel weight
1980 16% reduction in kernel weight 4% reduction in kernel weight 11% reduction in kernel weight
Average 20% reduction in kernel weight 7% reduction in kernel weight 14% reduction in kernel weight

Spring wheat growth and development guide (11)

Moisture percentage

Throughout grain filling the kernel moisture percentage declines (Figure 9), finally reaching a level between 30 and 40 percent at the time of maximum grain weight (physiological maturity).

However, kernel moisture doesn’t always determine when physiological maturity occurs. A better indicator of maturity is when the head and the peduncle lose their green color (Figure 11). The green color is lost from the flag leaf blade when the kernel attains about 95 percent of its final dry weight.

Once the crop reaches physiological maturity, no more kernel dry weight will accumulate and it can be swathed without reducing yield.

After physiological maturity, moisture in the kernels declines rapidly (Figure 9). Combine the crop at 13 to 14 percent moisture to avoid postharvest drying costs and ensure safer storage.

Approximately 70 to 90 percent of the final grain yield is derived from photosynthates (products of photosynthesis) produced by the plant during grain filling.

The flag leaf and head usually contribute most, but certainly not all, of the photosynthate to the grain. Photosynthates produced by the flag leaf may contribute up to 50 percent of the grain yield, depending on seasonal conditions, but the head, penultimate leaf and other leaves can also contribute significant quantities.

Maintaining green and functional upper leaf blades, sheaths and heads during grain filling is important for high yields.

(Video) ASF: AndrewGreen - Spring Wheat Breeding Program Update and Variety Review

Anther: The part of the flower that produces the pollen.

Coleoptile: The sheath that encloses the first main shoot leaf and provides protection as it emerges from the soil.

Flag leaf: The leaf immediately below the head.

Floret: An individual flower within the head.

Glumes: The pair of bracts located at the base of a spikelet in the head.

Internode: The part of a stem between two nodes.

Jointing: Stage of wheat development when stem nodes are first detected above the soil: Zadoks stage 31.

Leaf blade: The flattened portion of a leaf above the sheath.

Leaf sheath: The lower part of a leaf enclosing the stem.

Main shoot: The primary shoot that emerges first from the soil and from which tillers originate.

Node (joint): A region on the stem where leaves are attached.

Peduncle: The top section of the stem between the flag leaf and the head.

Penultimate leaf: First leaf below the flag leaf.

Seminal roots: Roots arising at the level of the seed.

Spikelet: The flower of a grass consisting of a pair of glumes and one or more enclosed florets.

Tiller: A shoot originating from the base of the plant.

Bongard, P.M., Oelke, E.A. & Simmons, S.R. (2018). Spring barley growth and development guide.

Bauer, A., Eberlein, C.V., Enz, J.W., & Fanning, C. (1984). Use of growing-degree days to determine spring wheat growth stages. North Dakota State University Extension Bulletin, 37.3.

Haun, J.R. (1973). Visual quantification of wheat development. Agronomy Journal, 65, 116-119.

Large, E.C. (1954). Growth stages in cereals, illustration of the Feekes scale. Plant Pathology, 3, 128-129.

Chang, T.T., Konzak, C.F. & Zadoks, J.C. (1974). A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research, 14, 415-421. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.1974.tb01084.x

Phyllis Bongard, Extension content development and communications specialist; Erv Oelke, emeritus Extension agronomist and Steve Simmons, emeritus agronomist, College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences.

Reviewed in 2021

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FAQs

Spring wheat growth and development guide? ›

Wheat's growth cycle has the following divisions: Germination, seedling establishment and leaf production, tillering and head differentiation, stem and head growth, head emergence and flowering and grain filling and maturity.

What are the stages of wheat development? ›

Organ differentiation defines the various stages of wheat development. Physiologically, the following stages are usually distinguished: germination, emergence, tillering, floral initiation or double ridge, terminal spikelet, first node or beginning of stem elongation, boot, spike emergence, anthesis and maturity.

How long does it take for a wheat head to fill? ›

Although tillers have developed over several weeks, bloom in a given wheat plant is usually complete four to five days after heading. The grain-fill period of wheat varies somewhat, depending upon climate.

What is the duration of maturity stage in wheat? ›

Contexts in source publication

between the others' find- ings and the present study as in normal sowing condition, 'Shatabdi' took the highest time for maturation (108.0 days) and which was followed by 'Bijoy' (96.67 days). 'Pra- dip' and 'Sufi' had almost same maturity duration (88.33 and 88.0 days respectively).

What is the best month to plant wheat? ›

The optimal seeding window across most of the Prairies is between September 1 and 15. If the crop is to be used for fall grazing it should be seeded by mid August. Seeding past the optimal date is ok and many growers still produce profitable yields.

How long does spring wheat take to emerge? ›

On the other hand, the emergence of wheat is when the seedling breaks through the soil surface, and it is affected by air, soil temperature and seeding depth. For seed planted 0.5 inches deep, it takes 105 growing degree days (GDD) to emerge.

At what temperature does spring wheat grow? ›

Winter wheat development is promoted by seedlings' exposure to temperatures in the 38 to 46 degrees Fahrenheit (3 to 8 degrees Celsius) range.

How many times can you harvest wheat in a year? ›

Perennial wheat is generally a weak perennial since the current lines of the crop regrow only two times.

How do you know when wheat is done flowering? ›

Anthesis (Flowering) in Wheat - YouTube

What is the spacing of wheat crop? ›

Seeding depth should be around 5±2 cm with a row spacing of 20-23 cm. For late sown wheat reduce the line spacing to 15-18 cm.

How long does wheat take to grow? ›

Wheat takes about 4 months to mature, but when it comes to making a decision about the right time to harvest it, the farmer has to know when the crop is at a premium. If the weather has been dry and hot the 'finish' will be quicker. Mature wheat is ready to harvest.

When should spring wheat be planted? ›

Spring wheat is planted in early spring, as soon as possible, and harvested in late summer. Spring wheat is sometimes dormant seeded in late November or early December, when the ground is cold enough to inhibit germination until spring.

What month is spring wheat? ›

Spring wheat is planted in March, April or May depending on moisture conditions in the soil. Getting into the field too early can result in tractors and planters stuck up to their axles in mud. Spring wheat is used as a rotation crop. Because of its shorter growing season, it rarely yields as much as winter wheat.

Can u plant wheat in the spring? ›

Spring wheat can be planted while the soil is still cool. Broadcast seed into cultivated soil so that the seeds are about 3 inches (7 cm) apart and one-half inch (1 cm) deep. No thinning is required. Increase spacing to 8 inches (20cm) apart when growing wheat with other cover crops.

Does wheat need a lot of water? ›

Because wheat is generally a cool season crop, it does not require much water. Wheat needs between 12 and 15 inches of rain over a growing season to produce a good crop.

How deep should wheat be planted? ›

How deep do I drill wheat, barley and oats down to find moisture? Under most conditions, the optimum seeding depth for small grains is 1.5 to 2 inches. Aim to place the seed in a zone with ample moisture, but shallow enough so the crop can quickly emerge.

How much wheat should a family of 4 have? ›

Thus, a family of four would need 365×4=1,460 pounds of wheat/grains/beans per year (maybe a little less with kids). This is just about two acres of wheat at 750 pounds/acre.

Will spring wheat survive winter? ›

Spring wheat types do not require exposure to cold temperatures for normal development and can be planted in spring without concerns about vernalization. Winter wheat development is promoted by seedlings' exposure for six weeks to temperatures in the 38 to 46 degrees Fahrenheit range.

Is spring wheat better than winter wheat? ›

Harder winter wheat usually contains a higher protein content than spring wheat and is suitable for making pasta and bread. Spring wheat is used for products that do not require high-protein content, such as tender pastries and cakes.

How often should you water wheat? ›

Water the field two to three times during a dry summer season. Winter wheat crops require water only when the seeds are planted. Wheat grows best in a dry climate; however, check the soil moisture of the winter crop at the start of spring and water if the wheat stems look parched and unusually dry.

Why do farmers harvest at night? ›

Many farmers harvest at night not only to beat the heat themselves but also to ensure that their crops are at the peak of freshness. For farmers putting their harvest directly on a truck to be delivered to customers, harvesting at night serves the added benefit of helping the driver beat traffic.

Will wheat regrow after cutting? ›

If you only mow, the wheat will regrow because it's a grass plant and puts out new shoots (tillers) from the crown. Cutting won't kill it unless you cut multiple times at ground level.

Can you double crop wheat? ›

Double cropping after wheat harvest can be a high-risk venture. The available growing season is relatively short. Heat and/or dry conditions in July and August may cause problems with germination, emergence, seed set, or grain fill.

How long does flowering last in wheat? ›

Flowering is marked by the extrusion of anthers from the spikelets; the reason for which this process is also referred to as anthesis. Flowering will continue over the next 7-10 days. The identification of this growth stage is very important for the management of Fusarium head blight (head scab) with fungicides.

How can you tell if wheat is in the boot? ›

How to identify boot stage in wheat - YouTube

What is the best row spacing for wheat? ›

In conventionally grown wheat crops, row spacing varies from 12 to 18 cm, whereas it can vary from 35 to 50 cm in organic or no-till farming conditions.

Which is the best variety of wheat? ›

Durum wheat, often known as pasta wheat or macaroni wheat, is grown in India. It is also one of the best quality wheat variety in India.

How much wheat can you grow in an acre? ›

In the United States, one acre of wheat yields an average of around 40 bushels of wheat. About half of the wheat grown in the United States is used domestically.

How can I make wheat grow faster? ›

Wheat is a prime example. It can grow without water, but it will grow much faster if you keep it watered. If your soil is left untended for too long and you put no plants in the ground, it will turn back into dirt after a while.

Where does wheat grow the best? ›

Durum wheat, which is primarily grown in North Dakota and Montana, is known for their excellent qualities for producing pasta. The wheat class everyone knows from their.
...
Leading wheat producing U.S. states in 2020 and 2021 (in 1,000 bushels)
Characteristic20202021
Kansas281,250364,000
North Dakota312,587196,195
8 more rows

Will deer eat wheat? ›

In cafeteria-style plot tests, wheat is consistently eaten by deer from the time it is planted in late summer/early fall through winter, regardless of what other forages are available. Wheat is cold-hardy, grows in a wide range of soil types, and is tolerant of relatively dry conditions. It's easy to plant.

What is the first stage of wheat? ›

The first stage of growth in wheat is called the seedling stage. This stage occurs after germination and begins when the first true leaves emerge from the soil, and ends when the first tiller emerges.

How many stages does wheat have in Minecraft? ›

A wheat crop has a total of eight stages (0-7) from the time it is planted until it can be harvested.

What is flowering stage of wheat? ›

Flowering is marked by the extrusion of anthers from the spikelets; the reason for which this process is also referred to as anthesis. Flowering will continue over the next 7-10 days. The identification of this growth stage is very important for the management of Fusarium head blight (head scab) with fungicides.

What is CRI stage in wheat? ›

i) C.R.I. stage (Crown root initiation) after 20 to 25 days of sowing to promote tillering.

Videos

1. Wheat School: Identifying the ideal stage for a PGR application
(RealAgriculture)
2. Wheat growing time laps || Time lapse video
(AURA - KNOWLEDGE & ENERGY)
3. Wheat Growth Stages 10 to 32 .mpeg
(The Wheat Team)
4. Wheat School - Chad Lee: Growth Staging Wheat and Influence of Management on Wheat Development
(UK College of Agriculture, Food and Environment)
5. MAC 2020 "Wheat Agronomy - Matching Input Level with Cultivar" Anne Kirk, Brad Pinkerton
(UM - Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences)
6. Growth Staging Wheat- A Closer Look
(TaurusAgTeam)

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