(Update 2022) Is Graffiti Art or Crime? | IELTS Reading Practice Test (2022)

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IELTS Reading Practice Test

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(Update 2022) Is Graffiti Art or Crime? | IELTS Reading Practice Test (1)

A. The term graffiti derives from the Italian graffio meaning ‘scratching’ and can be defined as uninvited markings or writing scratched or applied to objects, built structures and natural features. It is not a new phenomenon: examples can be found on ancient structures around the world, in some cases predating the Greeks and Romans. In such circumstances it has acquired invaluable historical and archaeological significance, providing a social history of life and events at that time. Graffiti is now a problem that has become pervasive, as a result of the availability of cheap and quick means of mark-making.


B. It is usually considered a priority to remove graffiti as quickly as possible after it appears. This is for several reasons. The first is to prevent ‘copy-cat’ emulation which can occur rapidly once a clean surface is defaced. It may also be of a racist or otherwise offensive nature and many companies and councils have a policy of removing this type of graffiti within an hour or two of it being reported. Also, as paints, glues and inks dry out over time they can become increasingly difficult to remove and are usually best dealt with as soon as possible after the incident. Graffiti can also lead to more serious forms of vandalism and, ultimately, the deterioration of an area, contributing to social decline.

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C. Although graffiti may be regarded as an eyesore, any proposal to remove it from sensitive historic surfaces should be carefully considered: techniques designed for more robust or utilitarian surfaces may result in considerable damage. In the event of graffiti incidents, it is important that the owners of buildings or other structures and their consultants are aware of the approach they should take in dealing with the problem. The police should be informed as there may be other related attacks occurring locally. An incidence pattern can identify possible culprits, as can stylised signatures or nicknames, known as ‘tags, which may already be familiar to local police. Photographs are useful to record graffiti incidents and may assist the police in bringing a prosecution. Such images are also required for insurance claims, and can be helpful to cleaning operatives, allowing them to see the problem area before arriving on site.

(Update 2022) Is Graffiti Art or Crime? | IELTS Reading Practice Test (2)


D. There are a variety of methods that are used to remove graffiti. Broadly these divide between chemical and mechanical systems. Chemical preparations are based on dissolving the media; these solvents can range from water to potentially hazardous chemical ‘cocktails’. Mechanical systems such as wire-brushing and grit-blasting attempt to abrade or chip the media from the surface. Care should be taken to comply with health and safety legislation with regard to the protection of both passers-by and any person carrying out the cleaning, operatives should follow product guidelines in terms of application and removal, and wear the appropriate protective equipment. Measures must be taken to ensure that run-off, aerial mists, drips and splashes do not threaten unprotected members of the public. When examining a graffiti incident it is important to assess the ability of the substrate to withstand the prescribed treatment. If there is any doubt regarding this, then small trial areas should be undertaken to assess the impact of more extensive treatment.


E. A variety of preventive strategies can be adopted to combat a recurring problem of graffiti at a given site. As no two sites are the same, no one set of protection measures will be suitable for all situations. Each site must be looked at individually. Surveillance systems such as closed circuit television may also help. In cities and towns around the country, prominently placed cameras have been shown to reduce anti-social behaviour of all types including graffiti. Security patrols will also act as a deterrent to prevent recurring attacks. However, the cost of this may be too high for most situations. Physical barriers such as a wall, railings, doors or gates can be introduced to discourage unauthorised access to a vulnerable site. However, consideration has to be given to the impact measures have on the structure being protected. In the worst cases, they can be almost as damaging to the quality of the envfronment as the graffiti they prevent. In others, they might simply provide a new surface for graffiti.


F. One of the most significant problems associated with graffiti removal is the need to remove it from surfaces that are repeatedly attacked. Under these circumstances the repeated removal of graffiti using even the most gentle methods will ultimately cause damage to the surface material. There may be situations where the preventive strategies mentioned above do not work or are not a viable proposition at a given site. Anti-graffiti coatings are usually applied by brush or spray leaving a thin veneer that essentially serves to isolate the graffiti from the surface.


G. Removal of graffiti from a surface that has been treated in this way is much easier, usually using low-pressure water which reduces the possibility of damage. Depending on the type of barrier selected it may be necessary to reapply the coating after each graffiti removal exercise.

Questions

Questions 14-19
Reading Passage has six paragraphs, A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-G ,in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.

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NB You may use any letter more than once.
14 why chemically cleaning graffiti may cause damage
15 the benefit of a precautionary strategy on the gentle removal
16 the damaging and accumulative impact of graffiti to the community
17 the need for different preventive measures being taken to cope with graffiti
18 a legal proposal made to the owner of building against graffiti
19 the reasons of removing graffiti as soon as possible

Question 20-21
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write your answers in boxes 20-21 on your answer sheet.

Which two statements are true concerning the removal of graffiti
A cocktail removal can be safer than water treatment
B small patch trial before applying large scale of removing
c Chemical treatments are the most expensive way of removing
D there are risks for both Chemical and medication method
E mechanical removals are much more applicable than Chemical treatments

Questions22-23
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write your answers in boxes 22-23 on your answer sheet.
Which TWO of the following preventive measures against graffiti are mentioned effective in the passage?
A organise more anti graffiti movement in the city communities
B increase the police patrols on the street
C Build a new building with material repelling to water
D installing more visible security cameras
E Provide a whole new surface with chemical coat

Questions 24-27
Complete the Summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage.
Use NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.

24 Ancient graffiti is of significance and records the 24.……………… of details
life for that period.
25 The police can recognize newly committed incidents of graffiti by the
signature which is called 25……………….that they are familiar with
26 Operatives ought to comply with relevant rules during the operation, and
put on the suitable 26………………..
27 Removal of graffiti from a new type of coating surface can be much
convenient of using 27………………..

Answers

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(Update 2022) Is Graffiti Art or Crime? | IELTS Reading Practice Test (4)

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FAQs

Is graffiti a crime or art reading? ›

All in all, graffiti is arguably an art form because it's an expression of the artist's particular viewpoint or idea. For this reason, it belongs in the hall of culture as much as painting and architecture.

Could Urban Engineers learn from dance explanation? ›

Answer explanation: “In order to bring about fundamental changes to the ways we use our cities, engineering will need to develop a richer understanding of why people move in certain ways, and how this movement affects them. Choreography may not seem an obvious choice for tackling this problem.

Is graffiti a type of art? ›

Graffiti, while once considered vandalism, is becoming more widely recognized as a type of artwork. However, it is still not always positively received or universally accepted as art by the general public. Graffiti Art takes the techniques and methodologies behind street Graffiti and applies them to other mediums.

Is graffiti an art or vandalism? ›

The idea that a form of artistic expression could be considered vandalism is, unsurprisingly, not widespread among graffiti artists. “Graffiti is 100% art,” says Pearce. “It's a symbol of rebellion, and it presents a fantastic new form of creativity, but what makes it art is an individual's opinion.

How can I be happy in ielts reading answer? ›

Happiness is a positive by-product of keeping active. But not just being busy, we need to be doing things that raise self-esteem and bring us satisfaction; controlling our own schedule and prioritising activities that satisfy our own needs. And saying 'no' to other people if necessary.

Can animals count? ›

Scientists have found that animals across the evolutionary spectrum have a keen sense of quantity, able to distinguish not just bigger from smaller or more from less, but two from four, four from ten, forty from sixty.

Why do we need to protect polar bears? ›

Importance of polar bears. Polar bears are at the top of the food chain and have an important role in the overall health of the marine environment. Over thousands of years, polar bears have also been an important part of the cultures and economies of Arctic peoples.

What is Exploration answer? ›

' To him, exploration meant bringing back information from a remote place regardless of any great self-discovery. Each definition is slightly different – and tends to reflect the field of endeavour of each pioneer.

What is a graffiti artist called? ›

Beginnings of Contemporary Graffiti in the United States

Early graffiti artists were commonly called "writers" or "taggers" (individuals who write simple "tags," or their stylized signatures, with the goal of tagging as many locations as possible.)

What does graffiti stand for? ›

graffiti, form of visual communication, usually illegal, involving the unauthorized marking of public space by an individual or group. Although the common image of graffiti is a stylistic symbol or phrase spray-painted on a wall by a member of a street gang, some graffiti is not gang-related.

What country is graffiti legal? ›

Taipei, Taiwan. Many artists take advantage of Taiwan's legal gray area concerning graffiti and vandalism, posting their work all over the city. Police officers openly admit to not getting involved unless there is an owner complaint or property damage.

Who made graffiti famous? ›

1. Cornbread. Born Darryl McCray, Cornbread is generally acknowledged to be the first modern graffiti artist, who got his start tagging in Philadelphia during the late 1960s.

Why is graffiti not good? ›

Graffiti can cause damage to decorative or delicate surfaces. Affected areas may also start to feel run down and appear threatening, putting off customers and prospects. Some graffiti can be very offensive, threatening to groups or individuals, or racially abusive.

Why do we yawn in ielts reading? ›

It is commonly believed that people yawn as a result of being sleepy or tired because they need oxygen. However, the latest research shows that a yawn can help cool the brain and help it work more effectively, which is quite different from the popular belief that yawning promotes sleep and is a sign of tiredness.

What makes life happy? ›

Most studies on what makes people happy agree that family and relationships rank right at the top. Next come meaningful work, positive thinking, and the ability to forgive.

How can I be happy? ›

How to be happier
  1. Manage your stress levels. If you have a lot of stress in your life, find ways to reduce it, such as learning a few time-management techniques. ...
  2. Enjoy yourself. ...
  3. Boost your self-esteem. ...
  4. Have a healthy lifestyle. ...
  5. Talk and share. ...
  6. Build your resilience.

What animals understand zero? ›

Other behavioral studies have shown that rhesus macaques and honeybees also demonstrate an understanding of zero. In terms of brain activity linked to zero, multiple (opens in new tab) studies have shown that monkeys carry specially tuned neurons for the number zero, just like crows.

Do animals know math? ›

Animal mathematical skills

Numerical abilities have been identified in many different species, most prominently chimpanzees. Some of these capabilities demonstrate that the animals understand the underlying connections between different words and labels.

Can animals count their babies? ›

Some research suggests that number sense may be something that certain animals are born with. In 2015, scientists found that baby chicks as young as 3 days old can identify smaller and larger quantities and may even think of numbers on a "number line" running from left to right, similar to humans.

How strong is a polar bear? ›

Polar bears are powerfully strong; they are bigger, stronger, and even faster than other bear species. An adult polar bear can weigh up to 1300 pounds and is 10 times stronger than a human. They are so strong they can lift more than 1000 pounds of heavy icebergs.

How many polar bears are left in the world? ›

There are around 22,000 polar bears left in the wild, but man-made climate change and global warming are making life tough for these impressive, powerful predators—so saving the polar bears could be in our hands.

How is climate change affecting polar bears? ›

Rising temperatures are melting the Arctic sea-ice on which polar bears hunt, limiting their access to food. A recent study has found a remote population of polar bears that have adapted to hunt on chunks of glacier ice.

Why boring is stimulating? ›

Psychologist Sandi Mann at the University of Central Lancashire, UK, goes further. 'All emotions are there for a reason, including boredom,' she says. Mann has found that being bored makes us more creative. 'We're all afraid of being bored but in actual fact, it can lead to all kinds of amazing things,' she says.

Why do people explore? ›

Exploration leads to knowledge and understanding, and means that you make the world a better place as you explore. People have always tried to leave the world a better place for future generations. Exploration is one way we can do that. It is a gift that people of the past give people of the future.

What is Exploration in history? ›

Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources, especially in the context of geography or space, rather than research and development that is usually not centred on earth sciences or astronomy.

What is another name for graffiti? ›

That which has been scribbled, written in a scrawled or careless hand. scribbling. cacography. graffito. griffonage.

Who is the father of graffiti? ›

The history of graffiti

Modern graffiti appeared in Philadelphia in the early 1960s. Darryl McCray ('Cornbread') is widely regarded as the father of modern day graffiti.

What is vomit graffiti? ›

'Throw-up' or 'throwie' is a widely referenced graffiti term, most commonly used to describe tag-like drawings of bubble letters designed for quick execution (we all know why) of graffiti words, and usually consisting of artist's name and only two colors.

Do graffiti artists get paid? ›

As of Sep 23, 2022, the average annual pay for a Street Artist in the United States is $41,333 a year.

What does a halo mean in graffiti? ›

angels. Famous or respected graffitist who have died. The people who admire them tag their names on a wall with halos above them or make tribute pieces with their faces or tag with the dates of their birth to death.

Is tagging illegal? ›

Graffiti is a crime, not just a nuisance. Graffiti, or tagging as it is sometimes called, is a misdemeanor crime. It can, however, become a felony-level crime if the damage inflicted is more than $1,000.00. Other penalties such as the severity of the crime, the criminal history of the offender, his/her age, etc.

What is the difference between graffiti and graffiti art? ›

Graffiti (left) is word-based, whereas Street Art (right) is image-based. “Graffiti art”, if one had to, would be the name Stavsky gives to the two form's artistic overlap. This describes elaborate graffiti that is more figurative, using images and colors akin to most street art paintings.

Why do people do graffiti? ›

According to Art Journal, “there are many possible purposes for graffiti: it can be to tell a story, highlight a certain moment in time where things went wrong or right, describe people, politics, culture, art, places and society together; express yourself anonymously, or just be another art form.” However, that is ...

Who was the first graffiti artist? ›

In 1965, Darryl “Cornbread” McCray, now widely considered the world's first modern graffiti artist, was a 12-year-old troublemaker housed at Philadelphia's Youth Development Center (YDC).

Why is graffiti not a crime? ›

Because paint, spray paint, brushes, etc are not illegal - the crime often committed when deploying graffiti is vandalism. It is a form of theft. There is nothing inherently illegal about drawing a picture of a cat.

Is graffiti a criminal offence? ›

Graffiti is against the law

The police or any officers authorised by the council can issue a fixed penalty notice of £80 for graffiti offences. It is termed as criminal damage which carries a maximum custodial sentence of ten years.

What happens if you get caught doing graffiti UK? ›

A fixed penalty notice of £150 may be issued for minor graffiti offences, to discharge your liability and court proceedings if payment is received within 14 days following the date of notice.

Is tagging illegal? ›

Graffiti is a crime, not just a nuisance. Graffiti, or tagging as it is sometimes called, is a misdemeanor crime. It can, however, become a felony-level crime if the damage inflicted is more than $1,000.00. Other penalties such as the severity of the crime, the criminal history of the offender, his/her age, etc.

What country is graffiti legal? ›

Taipei, Taiwan. Many artists take advantage of Taiwan's legal gray area concerning graffiti and vandalism, posting their work all over the city. Police officers openly admit to not getting involved unless there is an owner complaint or property damage.

Why do people do graffiti? ›

According to Art Journal, “there are many possible purposes for graffiti: it can be to tell a story, highlight a certain moment in time where things went wrong or right, describe people, politics, culture, art, places and society together; express yourself anonymously, or just be another art form.” However, that is ...

Who made graffiti famous? ›

1. Cornbread. Born Darryl McCray, Cornbread is generally acknowledged to be the first modern graffiti artist, who got his start tagging in Philadelphia during the late 1960s.

How do you not get caught graffiti? ›

How to reduce the risk of getting caught: Do not write your tags on your personal property, such as schoolbooks, bags, inside of your hat, back of your desk etc. If you want to practice your tag style on paper, make sure you throw the pieces of paper out when you finished. Keep your sketchbook hidden in a safe place.

How can police stop graffiti? ›

Remove graffiti quickly and professionally
  1. Increase risk of detection.
  2. Maximise lighting.
  3. Improve lines of sight.
  4. Implement formal surveillance.
  5. Create a graffiti-resistant environment.
  6. Protect surfaces for easier graffiti removal.
  7. Barrier coatings.
  8. Sacrificial coatings.
19 Apr 2018

Do graffiti artists get paid? ›

As of Sep 23, 2022, the average annual pay for a Street Artist in the United States is $41,333 a year.

Can I graffiti my house UK? ›

It's illegal to draw or paint graffiti on public or private property without permission. Those caught can be prosecuted, and if found guilty can be fined up to £5,000.

Is egging a house illegal in UK? ›

The investigating officer Sergeant Philip Barrett said: “Throwing eggs at cars or houses is a criminal offence, capable of causing damage and injury. We do not tolerate this anti-social behaviour and would appeal to anyone who has witnessed egg-throwing vandalism or who has been a victim, to contact us.”

What is vomit graffiti? ›

'Throw-up' or 'throwie' is a widely referenced graffiti term, most commonly used to describe tag-like drawings of bubble letters designed for quick execution (we all know why) of graffiti words, and usually consisting of artist's name and only two colors.

What is the difference between graffiti and graffiti art? ›

Graffiti (left) is word-based, whereas Street Art (right) is image-based. “Graffiti art”, if one had to, would be the name Stavsky gives to the two form's artistic overlap. This describes elaborate graffiti that is more figurative, using images and colors akin to most street art paintings.

Is Sharpie good for tagging? ›

Q: Are Sharpies good for graffiti art? The quality of Sharpie markers is undeniable, as there is a wide array of colors for each pen and marker from this brand. However, they do have a limited performance when it comes to graffiti artworks. Sharpie markers work better over smooth surfaces.

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